Ely (1990) referred conditions of changes to the factors in the environment that affects the implementation in the change process. When the implementation plan to launch out innovation is carefully crafted to satisfy all the perceived attributes that facilitate the rate of adoption, what else can make the adoption easier or impede the adoption? This is exactly the question that Ely's Conditions of Changes intend to answer.

Ely (1999) listed eight conditions that should exist or be created in the environment where in the innovation is implemented to facilitate its adoption:

  1. Dissatisfaction with the status quo: the precondition for people to accept a change is that they perceive a needs to change the environment. Perception of such needs usually is revealed in people's dissatisfaction of the existing methods, products, or programs. Understanding of the cause of the dissatisfaction and identifying who has dissatisfaction can help the change agent to communicate the innovation to the adopters in a more effective way. Ellisworth (2001) said that understanding sources and the levels of dissatisfaction can help the change agent to position the innovation to be more compatible with their 'felt needs' (in Rogers' term).
  2. Sufficient knowledge and skills: In order to make the implementation succeed, "the people who will ultimately implement any innovation must possess sufficient knowledge and skills to do the job." (Ely, 1995). It is especially evident when the innovation involves in use of a certain tool or a technique. Without enough training to use the tool or technique, the innovation will die out soon.
  3. Availability of resources: A good recipe itself does not guarantee the tasty results of cooking. There must be right ingredients and right cooking utensils available for the cook to use. In the same logic, an innovation without resources, such as money, tools and materials, to support its implementation, will not be successful.
  4. Availability of time: The adoption of the innovation takes time. As it is put by Ely, "the implementers must have time to learn, adapt, integrate, and reflect on what they are doing." Their 'confirmation' of the acceptance of the innovation does not necessarily bring forth the change. It needs time for the people to understand the innovation and develop the abilities to adapt the innovation.
  5. Reward or incentives: People need to be encouraged in their performance of innovation or use of the innovation. Extrinsic or intrinsic rewards can add some value of the innovation, and thus, promote its implementation.
  6. Participation: Participants in the implementation should be encouraged to involve in decision-making. With the opportunities to communicate their ideas and opinions, the participants can have sense of the ownership of the innovation. Moreover, the communication among all parties can help monitor the progress of the innovation.
  7. Commitment: Since the implementation take a great deal of endeavors and time, the people who are involved in the implementation need to make commitment to their efforts and time. There must be "firm and visible evidence that there is endorsement and continuing support for implementation" (Ely, 1995).
  8. Leadership: Unless to say, the leaders' expectations and commitment have a great impacts on the process of implementation. Leadership also include the availability of affective support thorough the process.


Ely, D. P. (1990). Conditions that facilitate the implementation of educational technology innovations. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 23 (2), 298-305.

Ely, D. P. (1999). New perspectives on the implementation of educational technology innovation.

Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation

Fullan's Educational Change

Ely's Conditions of Changes