The History of Art Education Time Line 1860-1869
Decades of art education history in contexts of schooling and artworlds

  • Emmanuel Gottlieb Leutze completes his rosy and idealized painting, Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way, marking a period of great patriotism and westward expansion at the cost of Native Americans and indigenous wildlife such as the buffalo. In the two lower corners are portraits of William Clark and Daniel Boone. Students of art would have seen historically patriotic works such as this in hopes to foster nationalism and the concept of Manifest Destiny. [Emily Valenza, Spring 2002]
  • Soon after the end of the Civil War, on January 31, 1865, Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment. This amendment banned slavery in the United States of America and aided in the advance towards African American's fight for freedom; however, there was still a long journey ahead before African Americans would acquire equal rights. After achieving this progress, many African Americans desired the education that had been denied them prior to this amendment. [Tessa Gross, Spring 2002]
  • In 1865, Vassar College, founded by Matthew Vassar, became the first women's college to house its own art gallery. Vassar himself had been quoted as saying, in 1861, to a board of trustees, that art education should embrace "Aesthetics, as treating of the beautiful in Nature and Art... illustrated by am extensive Gallery of Art." [Michele Warhurst, Spring 2002]
  • For the first time ever at a university, art history was brought into the curriculum at Vassar College by Henry Van Ingen. Van Ingen was a Dutch-born painter who tought drawing and painting at Vassar in addition to being in charge of the reknowned art gallery there. His art history cources included such topics as the "History of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture". This fact is important in history because it is the basis for all other improvments in the art education curriculum. Most movements that have appeared in the last century, (DBAE, Issues-based, etc.) all include art history as an important focus. [Teresa Maria Anasagasti, Spring 2002]
  • The Fourteenth Amendment of the United States was ratified. Under the equal protection clause, equal educational opportunity is a right to all American citizens. Section 1 protects the rights of all U.S. citizens by stating "No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States." [Elizabeth Garlena, Spring 2002]
  • Felix Slade established three chairs for professorships in the fine arts at Oxford, Cambridge, and London Universities in England. This was the first attempt to introduce the study of fine arts into British Universities. The first occupant of the Oxford chair was John Ruskin, who lectured there on the fine arts and established a drawing mastership institution, the Ruskin Drawing School. Ruskin's efforts at Oxford provided a model for American Universities through his close friendship with Charles Eliot Norton of Harvard. Most American universities now have art departments that offer programs in studio practices and art history as either part of their general education requirements or as a study in the humanities. [Leah Dyckman, Spring 2002]
  • The transcontinental railroad is completed on May 10th and reaches New Mexico by 1880, along with a great influx of tourists from the East. These tourists found Pueblo Indian pottery, which was quite different from traditional Pueblo pottery. The Pueblo Indians began making figurines, small jars and dishes to be sold to tourists as souvenirs, and even began wholesale distribution of their wares. This marks the roots of both tourism within the United States, and also the effect of industrial capitalism on the art of an isolated culture. Although these items were made for tourist consumption, their proliferation would bring Native American art to students in the Eastern United States as tangible artifacts. [Emily Valenza, Spring 2002]