The History of Art Education Time Line 1830-1839
Decades of art education history in contexts of schooling and artworlds

  • Originally starting as a seminary school with three teachers and fifty students, Wheaton College, located in Norton, Massachusetts, would in time be transformed into one of the first primarily liberal arts devoted schools. After being one of the first schools in the country to realize the age of separate gender schooling was drawing to an end, the school opted to endorse the arts as a school with a visual arts program amongst other curriculum. Nearly all of the school's founders and history can still be found in the small New England town of Norton. Names like Yelle and Leonard (families that helped to chart and fund the school) are still prominant community names there to this day. [Jaimeson Daley, Spring 2002]
  • In August, 1835, William Henry Fox Talbot was the first to discover a way to use a negative to make duplicate positive prints without losing the image on the negative. His negative, The Latticed Window, is known to be the oldest negative. This was the start of photography, which would later be used to photograph schools of the 19th century. [Ash Ikoniak, Fall 2002]
  • Horace Mann accepts the position of the first secretary of the Massachussetts Board of Education. Mann was one of the leading advocates of the common school movement which pushed for the establishment of state-supported schooling in the beginning of the industrial era. The growth of industry would require a workforce that was literate in many areas, including the arts, and especially design. Mann argued that the inclusion of drawing in common schools: (1) would improve handwriting, (2) was a vital industrial skill, and (3) was morally influential. [Erin Whitworth, Fall 2002]
  • The name "Photography" can be traced to a man by the name of Sir John Herschel, who first coined the term in 1839, the year the photographic process became public. The word is derived from the Greek words for light and writing. However, the road that would lead to the development of photography was laid long before the first photograph. The camera obscura (Latin, for "dark room") had been in existence for at least a hundred years, but it existed merely as an aid to drawing. It was discovered that if a room was completely darkened, with a single hole in one wall, an inverted image would be seen on the opposite wall. A person inside of the room could then trace this image, which was upside-down (simulating the way that images actually enter our eyes). The earliest record of the uses of a camera obscura can be found in the writings of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), who may have used it as a tool in understanding perspective. In the 18th century, a table-top model was developed. By adding a focused lens and a mirror, it was possible for a person outside of the box to trace the image which was reflected through the camera obsucura. A French man by the name of Nicephore Niepce produced the first photograph in July 1827. By using light sensitive chemicals on a metal plate, placed inside of a camera obscura, he was able to record a vague image of the view outside his window. He called this process "heliography" (after the Greek "of the sun"). And to this day, the discoveries of heliography continue to impact art, and art education. [Nathan Pankratz, Fall 2002]