Department of Speech Communication

Seminar in Rhetoric and Media

Fall 1999


Speech Communication 515

Seminar in Rhetoric and Media

Fall 1999

Monday 2:30-5:30

120 Thomas Classroom Building

Listserv (to send mail to entire class):


Tom Benson

227 Sparks Building

(814) 865-4201

office hours: Tues & Thurs 2:30-4:00 p.m.

and by appointment



The Rhetoric of Narrative Film

 Seminar in Rhetoric and Media

A graduate seminar in the rhetorical criticism of narrative film, with an emphasis on audience-centered close reading of films. Students will read widely in film criticism and will write an extended seminar paper. The seminar is conceived as an intensive, advanced workshop in rhetorical criticism of media. The seminar is intended to be relevant to the concerns of students of rhetoric, film studies, media, and communication studies generally.


August 24, 1999 – classes begin






(1) Aug 30


Casablanca (1942)


Read Robert Ray, A Certain Tendency of the Hollywood Cinema, part 1, 1-128.

Recommended viewing: The Grapes of Wrath (1940); Norma Rae (1979); The Maltese Falcon (1941); Meet John Doe (1941); Citizen Kane (1941); On the Waterfront (1954); The Grand Illusion (1937)


Sept 6




Labor Day – no class meeting

Recommended viewing: Meet Me in St. Louis (1944); To Kill a Mockingbird (1962); The Big Heat (1953); Shane (1953); Key Largo (1948); The Thin Man (1934); Rules of the Game (1939); The Blue Angel (1930)


(2) Sept 13


It's A Wonderful Life (1946)


Read Ray, part 2, 129-243

View It's A Wonderful Life at the Sparks Learning Center, 7 Sparks Building, before class meeting.

Recommended viewing: The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962); Open City (1946); Shoeshine (1946); Paisan (1946); The Bicycle Thief (1948); My Darling Clementine (1946); The Best Years of Our Lives (1947)

Topic due for seminar paper


(3) Sept 20


Taxi Driver (1976)


Read Ray, part 3, 247-368. For a list of scenes in Taxi Driver, see


Recommended viewing: Bonnie and Clyde (1968); A Hard Day’s Night (1964); Breathless (1959); The 400 Blows (1959); Hiroshima, Mon Amour (1959); The Graduate (1967); Dirty Harry (1971); The Godfather (1972); The Godfather II (1974)

Credits and production history for seminar paper


(4) Sept 27


The 39 Steps (1935)


Read William Rothman, Hitchcock: The Murderous Gaze, 1-172.

Recommended viewing: The Lodger (1926); Murder! (1930); The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934); Night Mail (1936); Song of Ceylon (1935).


(5) Oct 4


Shadow of a Doubt (1943)


Read Rothman, 174-244.

Recommended viewing: The Lady Vanishes (1938); The Secret Agent (1936); Sabotage (1936); Suspicion (1941); Strangers on a Train (1951)

List of scenes for your seminar paper



Oct 11




Fall Break – no class



(6) Oct 13


Psycho (1960)



Read Rothman, 246-347.

Review of reviews and criticism

Recommended viewing: The Birds (1963); The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956)


(7) Oct 18


Rear Window (1954)



Read Tania Modleski, The Women Who Knew Too Much.

recommended reading: Laura Mulvey, "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema," Screen 16 no. 3 (1975): 6-18;

Brief research proposal

Rebecca (1940); Notorious (1946); Vertigo (1958); Frenzy (1972)


(8) Oct 25


Philadelphia Story (1940)



Read Stanley Cavell, Pursuits of Happiness, 1-160.

Recommended viewing: The Lady Eve (1941); It Happened One Night (1934); Bringing Up Baby (1938); You Can’t Take It With You (1938)


(9) Nov 1


His Girl Friday (1940)



Read Cavell, 163-228.

Recommended viewing: Adam’s Rib (1949); My Fair Lady (1964); The Palm Beach Story (1942); Some Like It Hot (1959)


(10) Nov 8


The Awful Truth (1937)


Read Cavell, 231-278.

Seminar paper due

Recommended viewing: Born Yesterday (1950); Mr. And Mrs. Smith (1941)


(11) Nov 15


Stagecoach (1939)


Read Garry Wills, John Wayne’s America, 1-126; Nick Browne, "The Spectator in the Text: The Rhetoric of Stagecoach." (on electronic reserve)

Recommended viewing: The Informer (1935); The Long Voyage Home (1940); My Darling Clementine (1946); Citizen Kane (1941)


(12) Nov 22


Red River (1948)




Read Wills, 127-233.

Recommended viewing: Sands of Iwo Jima (1949); Fort Apache (1948); She Wore a Yellow Ribbon (1949); Rio Grande (1950).





(13) Nov 29


The Searchers (1956)



Read Wills, 235-314; Rodney Farnsworth, "John Wayne's Epic of Contradictions." Film Quarterly 52 (Winter 1998-1999): pp. 22-34. (on electronic reserve)


Recommended viewing: The Alamo (1960); High Noon (1952); The Quiet Man (1952); The Green Berets (1968); The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962); Rio Bravo (1959)

Oral reports of seminar papers. Discussion of film and readings will take place on-line. Presenting: Tracy Wilt, Brad Vivian, Sabine Henlin, Shannon Cain, Tracey Lanicek, Steve Blivess



(14) Dec 6





Big Jim McLain (1952)


Guilty By Suspicion (1991)



Read Benson, "Thinking Through Film"; Benson, "Looking for the Public in the Popular: The Hollywood Blacklist and the Rhetoric of Collective Memory." (on electronic reserve)

Recommended viewing: The Front (1976); Singin’ in the Rain (1952)

Oral reports of seminar papers. Discussion of film and readings will take place on-line. Presenting: David Schulz, Tony Wainwright, Kristan Falkowski, Amy Fast, Nicole Imperato, Melanie Selfridge



Dec 13




Final Examinations begin. Final seminar paper due



Seminar Papers

Seminar Papers: You are asked to prepare a major, article-length seminar paper--a close reading, from a rhetorical perspective, of a feature length narrative film. Subject the film to a close textual analysis, situated in whatever contexts (theoretical, situational, historical), if any, seem appropriate to support your interpretation. A central feature of the seminar will be the sequential preparation of the paper, followed by shared editorial consultation and thorough rewriting.

Major dates for paper development (all these assignments are due, typed, with a title page and a cumulative list of references, on the dates indicated):

September 13: Topic due, in writing. Briefly identify the film you wish to analyze and the central critical problems or questions you wish to investigate. What is the film? Where is it available? What, at this point, strike you as issues, questions, or problems worth investigating? Identify the director, country of origin, and release date of the film. (1-2 pages) It is strongly suggested that you talk with me before choosing a film for analysis. In any case, do not choose a film that you have written on for another class or that is scheduled for viewing in this class.

September 20: Credits and production history. A summary of the film's credits and a brief recounting (with sources cited) of the history of the film's production based on a library search.

October 4: List of scenes. Break the film down into a list of "scenes" or "smallest dramatic units," and list these, numbered, in order, with a brief description of what happens in each scene. At the end of the list of scenes, include a brief (one page will do) discussion of what appear to be, at this stage of your analysis, some leading narrative and formal features disclosed by breaking the film down into scenic units--pay special attention to issues of repetition (patterns that repeat in several scenes) and progression (how sequence influences the cumulative sense of what is happening in the film). For a sample list of scenes from Taxi Driver, see

October 13: Review of the reviews and criticism of your chosen film, from journalistic and scholarly sources. Be sure to search for newspapers, magazines, scholarly journals, critical books, and dissertations. Consult with a reference librarian to be sure you are making use of all available reference resources in the library. This assignment should produce a part of your bibliography. Parts of the report may be used as part of the final seminar paper.

October 18: Brief research proposal. Prepare a short proposal, as if for foundation funding, of 4-6 pages, in which you identify clearly the film you are analyzing, the critical problem you are investigating, the current state of the literature both on your film and on the general question you are addressing. Include a brief bibliography within the page limit.

November 8: Seminar paper due.

December 13: Final version of seminar paper due.


Paper Style. In preparing your papers, follow the style guidelines presented in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 4th edition, using the parenthetical citation system. If you use commentative notes, use endnotes rather than footnotes. The paper should contain a title page, abstract, text of the paper, endnotes (if any), and list of works cited. Please type all assignments and include a cover/title page that includes the title, your name, an indication of the course and instructor, contact information for you (preferred address for return of the paper, phone, e-mail address), and the date of this draft.


On-line participation

Computer. Students will be expected to be able to use the Penn State computer access system, including electronic mail, the world wide web, and a computer bulletin board or listserv to participate in the seminar. Workshops are offered by the Center for Academic Computing. Computer assignments will include twice-weekly exchanges of notes on the film and reading for the week. It is expected that seminar papers will be prepared on a microcomputer word processing system to allow for precision of formatting and ease of revision. For those who do not own computers, there are labs available on campus.


Electronic Mail and Class Listserv. The primary discussions in this seminar will be conducted face-to-face, on Monday afternoons, and throughout the rest of the week on the computer. Although it is hoped that participation will be intense and ongoing, at least the following deadlines must be met: (1) A contribution to discussion each Saturday afternoon by 5 p.m. responding to the reading that is assigned for the following Monday. (2) A followup contribution by Wednesday at 5 p.m. commenting in detail on the film clip on reserve in the Sparks media lab, which I hope you will analyze in some detail in connection with the week's reading and class discussion. These Wednesday reports are intended to allow us to explore, collaboratively and informally, the prospects of "close reading" of film. For the Saturday report, when there is no assigned topic, please try to frame a proposition or question for discussion, relate it to some part of the readings, quote or paraphrase the relevant passage in the reading (including a page reference), and sketch a reasoned discussion-opener. In these conversations, your opinions are important, but we should also work beyond mere clash (or coincidence) of opinion to mutual enlightenment and a shared willingness to learn new ways of thinking. You will also be asked to view the film assigned for the week's discussion before class--videotapes will be placed on reserve in the Sparks Lab. Your Saturday report on the readings may, of course, also include a commentary on the film and its relation to the week's readings. To participate in the on-line discussion, send e-mail to me ( requesting to be joined to the Listserv; once you are joined, you can send mail to the entire class at the address L-SPCOM515@LISTS.PSU.EDU



Grades. All elements of your work in the seminar will be considered in formulating a final grade for the course--participation (in class and on-line) 20%; written work (including first and final drafts of the seminar paper, progressive development of various stages of the paper, and editorial comments on peer reviewed papers) 80%.


Academic Integrity

Academic Integrity. Submission of all written work in this course is taken to imply that the work is your own unless otherwise indicated. Please be careful to document the work of others where appropriate. Under no circumstances submit for credit in this course any work that has been submitted in other courses. In selecting a film for critical analysis for your seminar paper, do not write about a film that is part of the syllabus of other courses you have taken without special permission.


Additional Reading

Additional reading. It is expected that in preparing your seminar paper, you will read widely in film and rhetorical criticism, in directions largely determined by the path you take in studying the film that is the subject of your seminar paper. If you come to the seminar with a minimal background in film studies, it would be a good idea to read a solid introduction to film, such as Bruce Kawin, How Movies Work (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992); if you are new to rhetorical criticism, you might begin by reading a variety of critical essays, such as those contained in Martin J. Medhurst and Thomas W. Benson, eds., Rhetorical Dimensions in Media, revised version of 2d edition (Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt, 1995); and Thomas W. Benson, ed., Landmark Essays in Rhetorical Criticism (Davis, CA: Hermagoras Press, 1993).

You might find it useful to read some other student work in rhetorical criticism of film; here is a list of theses and dissertations (and a couple of books based on dissertations), most of them written at Penn State (and many of them based on papers first prepared in this seminar):

  • Dale A. Bertelsen. "Rhetorical Privation as Cultural Praxis, Implicit Rhetorical Theory in Presidential Oratory and Contemporary Hollywood Films." Diss., Pennsylvania State University, 1989.

    Branigan, Edward. "Point of View in the Cinema: A Theory of Narration and Subjectivity in Classical Film." Diss., University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1979.

    Nick Browne. The Rhetoric of Filmic Narration (Ann Arbor, Mich., UMI Research Press, 1982). [based on his dissertation, Harvard, 1976]

    Ellen D. Dimler. "The Rhetorical Analysis of Stanley Kubrick's Full Metal Jacket: A Lesson in Textual and Critical Integration." M.A. Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1992.

    Ralph R. Donald. "Hollywood and World War II: Enlisting Feature Films as Propaganda." Diss., University of Massachusetts, 1987.

    Charles B. Ewing. "An Analysis of Frank Capra's War Rhetoric in the Why We Fight Films." Diss., Washington State University, 1983.

    Anthony Fleury. "Aliens and Just-War Ideology: A Rhetorical Analysis." M.A. Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1992.

    Baruch Gitlis. "The Anti-Semitic Nazi Film: A Study of Its Productional Rhetoric." Diss., University of Southern California, 1981.

    Joseph D. Gow. "America, You're too Young to Die!, The New Christian Right's Rhetoric of Recruitment." Diss., Pennsylvania State University, 1989.

    Anne E. Gravel. "Self-Reflexivity in Documentary and Ethnographic Film." M.A. Thesis, Northern Illinois University, 1989.

    Jeffery Donald Harris. "The Rhetoric of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial: An Analysis of Newsmagazine and Network Television News Coverage." M.A. Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1985.

    William L. Haynes. "An Extended Criticism of Contemporary Commercials As Prologue to a Rhetoric of Television." Diss., University of Minnesota, 1982.

    Jack L. Hillwig. "Film Criticism: Its Relationship to Economically Successful Films and an Application of Rhetoric to Improving the Critic's Methods." Diss., Ohio State University, 1980.

    Cynthia Loope Hupper. "A Rhetorical Analysis of Peter Weir's Film The Year of Living Dangerously." M.A. Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1989.

    Elizabeth M. Jenkins. "Film at the Service of Revolution: Bertolucci's Use of the Rhetoric of the Italian Communist Party in 1900." Diss., Pennsylvania State University, 1994.

    Greg Jenkins. "A Rhetorical Approach to Adaptation: Three Films by Stanley Kubrick." Diss., Pennsylvania State University, 1994.

    Diane Kowalski. "How Do Selected Television Commercials Depict Male-Female Interaction?" M.A. Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1976.

    Lisa Laidlaw. "Rhetorical Criticism and Neoformalism: A Case Study of Woody Allen's Zelig." M.A. Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1992.

    Janet Farrell Leontiou. "Food for Thought: The Rhetoric of Babette's Feast." Diss., Pennsylvania State University, 1994.

    Susan B. Mackey. "An Analysis of the 18-minute Film Preceding Ronald Reagan's Acceptance Speech at the 1984 Republican National Convention." Diss., Pennsylvania State University, 1988.

    Wayne J. McMullen. "A Rhetorical Analysis of Peter Weir's Witness." Diss. Pennsylvania State University, 1989.

    Soraya Mashat. "A Rhetorical Analysis of the Image of Saudi Women in Two Specific Cross-Cultural Media Messages." Diss., Pennsylvania State University, 1985.

    William Bradford Mello. "The Rhetoric of Ordinary People." M.A. Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1987.

    P. J. O'Connell. Robert Drew and the Development of Cinema Verite in America. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1992. [based on a Penn State Ph.D. dissertation]

    Harrison Atutumama Okotie. "A Critical Analysis of the Rhetoric of CBS, ABC, and NBC Television News Coverage of the Nigerian Civil War." Diss., Pennsylvania State University, 1982.

    James W. Palmer. "Film and Fiction: Essays in Narrative Rhetoric." Diss., Claremont Graduate School, 1976.

    Constance Penley. "The Rhetoric of the Photograph in Film Theory." Diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1983.

    Mary S. Piccirillo. "Toward a Rhetorical Aesthetic of Televisual Experience." Diss., University of Iowa, 1987.

    Philip C. Rossi. "A Rhetorical Analysis of Italian Neo-Realism in Roberto Rosellini's Rome, Open City." Diss., University of Michigan, 1977.

    Ellen S. Roth. "The Rhetoric of First-Person Point of View in the Novel and Film Forms: A Study of Anthony Burgess' A Clockwork Orange and Henry James' A Turn of the Screw." Diss., New York University, 1978.

    Mark J. Schaefermeyer. "The Rhetoric of Film: A Semiotic Approach to Criticism with a Case Study of Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey." Diss., Ohio State University, 1982.

    Louis A. Schwartz. "On the Frame Line: The Rhetoric of Escape in American Literature and Film." Diss., State University of New York at Buffalo, 1987.

    Christine A. Scodari. "The Rhetoric of Mass Intercultural Identification: A Burkeian Study of the New Australian Film Industry." Diss., Ohio State University, 1985.

    Meredith H. Sherter. "From McCarthy to the Monomyth: The Rhetorical Transformation of Jim Garrison." M.A. Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1994.

    Brian J. Snee. "The Rhetorical Construction of Jesus in The Last Temptation of Christ." M.A. Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1995.

    John F. Stone. "A Burkeian Analysis of Oliver Stone's Salvador, Platoon, and Wall Street: Towards a Rhetoric of the Political Film." Diss., University of Minnesota, 1990.

    Frank P. Tomasulo. "The Rhetoric of Ambiguity: Michelangelo Antonioni and the Modernist Discourse." Diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1986.

    Kristal S. Van Unen. "A Rhetorical Analysis of The Bear." M.A. Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1994.

    Robert Vianello. "The Rhetoric of 'The Spot': The Textual Analysis of the American Television Commercial." Diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1988.

    Richard F. Welch. "A Methodology for the Rhetorical Analysis of Aesthetic Communication: A Rhetorical Approach." Diss., University of Denver, 1983.

    James A. Wood. "An Application of Rhetorical Theory to Filmic Persuasion." Diss., Cornell University, 1967.


    Some other readings that you might find useful to broaden your experience in film studies and rhetorical criticism--this is by no means a complete list, but all of it should be on the reading list of a contemporary rhetorical critic with an interest in media, and these books and essays will quickly lead you to other works.

  • Affron, Charles. Cinema and Sentiment. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1982.

    Anderson, Carolyn, and Thomas W. Benson. Documentary Dilemmas: Frederick Wiseman's Titicut Follies. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1991.

    Andrew, Dudley. Concepts in Film Theory. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.

    Andrews, James R. The Practice of Rhetorical Criticism. 2d ed. New York: Longman, 1990.

    Arnold, Carroll C. Criticism of Oral Rhetoric. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill, 1974.

    Aronstein, Susan. "'Not Exactly a Knight': Arthurian Narrative and Recuperative Politics in the Indiana Jones Trilogy." Cinema Journal 34.4 (Summer 1995): 3-30.

    Barthes, Roland. Mythologies. Trans. Annette Lavers. New York: Hill and Wang, 1972.

    Benson, Thomas W. "Joe: An Essay in the Rhetorical Criticism of Film." Journal of Popular Culture (Winter 1974): 610-618.

    Benson, Thomas W. "The Senses of Rhetoric: A Topical System for Critics." Central States Speech Journal 29 (1978): 237-250.

    Benson, Thomas W. "The Rhetorical Structure of Frederick Wiseman's High School." Communication Monographs 47 (1980): 233-261.

    Benson, Thomas W. "Another Shooting in Cowtown." Quarterly Journal of Speech 67 (1981): 347-406.

    Benson, Thomas W. "The Rhetorical Structure of Frederick Wiseman's Primate." Quarterly Journal of Speech 71 (1985): 204-217.

    Benson, Thomas W. "Respecting the Reader." Quarterly Journal of Speech 72 (1986).

    Benson, Thomas W., and Carolyn Anderson. "The Rhetorical Structure of Frederick Wiseman's Model." Journal of Film and Video 36.4 (Fall 1984): 30-40.

    Benson, Thomas W., and Carolyn Anderson. "The Ultimate Technology: Frederick Wiseman's Missile." In Communication and the Culture of Technology, ed. Martin J. Medhurst, Alberto Gonzalez, and Tarla Rai Peterson. Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1990, 257-283.

    Benson, Thomas W., and Carolyn Anderson. "The Freeing of Titicut Follies." Free Speech Yearbook 1992 (Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univerity Press, 1992), vol. 30: 40-55.

    Bick, Ilsa J. "'That Hurts!': Humor and Sadomasochism in Lolita." Journal of Film and Video 46.2 (1994): 3-18.

    Bick, Ilsa J. "'Well, I Guess I Must Make You Nervous': Woman and the Space of Alien." Post Script 14.1-2 (1994-1995): 45-58.

    Booth, Wayne C. The Rhetoric of Fiction. 2d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

    Booth, Wayne C. The Company We Keep: An Ethics of Fiction. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

    Bordwell, David. Narration in the Fiction Film. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.

    Bordwell, David, Janet Staiger, and Kristin Thompson. The Classical Hollywood Cinema: Film Style and Mode of Production to 1960. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.

    Branham, Robert James. "The Role of the Convert in Eclipse of Reason and The Silent Scream." Quarterly Journal of Speech 77 (1991): 407-426.

    Branigan, Edward. Point of View in the Cinema: A Theory of Narration and Subjectivity in Classical Film. Berlin: Mouton, 1984.

    Branigan, Edward. Narrative Comprehension and Film. London: Routledge, 1992.

    Brock, Bernard L., Robert L. Scott, and James W. Chesebro, eds. Methods of Rhetorical Criticism: A Twentieth-Century Perspective. 3d ed. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1989.

    Brummett, Barry. "Electric Literature as Equipment for Living: Haunted House Films." Critical Studies in Mass Communication 2 (1985): 247-261.

    Brummett, Barry. Rhetoric in Popular Culture. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.

    Burke, Kenneth. "Antony on Behalf of the Play." The Philosophy of Literary Form. 3d ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973, 329-343.

    Burke, Kenneth. A Grammar of Motives. 1945; rpt. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969.

    Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs. Critiques of Contemporary Rhetoric. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1972.

    Chatman, Seymour. Coming to Terms: The Rhetoric of Narrative in Fiction and Film. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990.

    Clover, Carol J. Men, Women, and Chain Saws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992.

    DeBenedittis, Peter. Guam's Trial of the Century: News, Hegemony, and Rumor in an American Colony. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993. [based on a Penn State Ph.D. dissertation]

    Dittmar, Linda, and Gene Michaud, eds. From Hanoi to Hollywood: The Vietnam War in American Film. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990.

    Fiske, John. Reading the Popular. Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989.

    Foss, Sonja J., ed. Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice. 2d ed. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1996.

    Frentz, Thomas S., and Mary E. Hale. "Inferential Model Criticism of The Empire Strikes Back." Quarterly Journal of Speech 69 (1983): 278-289.

    Frentz, Thomas S., and Janice Hocker Rushing. "The Rhetoric of Rocky: Part Two." Western Journal of Speech Communication 42 (1978): 231-240.

    Giroux, Henry A., and Peter McLaren, eds. Between Borders: Pedagogy and the Politics of Cultural Studies. New York: Routledge, 1994.

    Goodnight, G. Thomas. "The Firm, the Park, and the University: Fear and Trembling on the Postmodern Trail." Quarterly Journal of Speech 81 (1995): 267-290.

    Gregg, Richard B. "The Criticism of Symbolic Inducement: A Critical-Theoretical Connection." In Speech Communication in the 20th Century, ed. Thomas W. Benson. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1985.

    Hart, Roderick P. Modern Rhetorical Criticism. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1990.

    Hendrix, Jerry, and James A. Wood. "The Rhetoric of Film: Toward Critical Methodology." The Southern Speech Communication Journal 39 (1973): 105-122.

    Kawin, Bruce. Mindscreen: Bergman, Godard, and First-Person Film. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978.

    Kelley, Susan M. "Giggles and Guns: The Phallic Myth in Unforgiven." Journal of Film and Video 47.1-3 (1995): 98-105.

    Kozloff, Sara. Invisible Storytellers: Voice-Over Narration in American Fiction Film. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

    Landy, Marcia, and Lucy Fisher. "Dead Again or A-Live Again: Postmodern or Postmortem?" Cinema Journal 33.4 (Summer 1994): 3-22.

    McGee, Michael Calvin. "Text, Context, and Fragmentation." Western Journal of Speech Communication 54 (1990): 274-289.

    McMullen, Wayne J., and Martha Solomon. "The Politics of Adaptation: Steven Spielberg's Appropriation of The Color Purple." Text and Performance Quarterly 14 (1994): 158- .

    Marcus, Millicent. Italian Film in the Light of Neorealism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.

    Mast, Gerald, Marshall Cohen, and Leo Braudy, eds. Film Theory and Criticism, 4th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).

    Mechling, Elizabeth Walker, and Jay Mechling. "The Atom According to Disney." Quarterly Journal of Speech 81 (1995): 436-453.

    Medhurst, Martin J. "Image and Ambiguity: A Rhetorical Approach to The Exorcist." Southern Communication Journal 44 (1978): 73-92.

    Medhurst, Martin J. "Hiroshima, Mon Amour: From Iconography to Rhetoric." Quarterly Journal of Speech 68 (1982): 345-370.

    Medhurst, Martin J. "The Rhetorical Structure of Oliver Stone's JFK." Critical Studies in Mass Communication 10 (1993): 128- .

    Medhurst, Martin J., and Thomas W. Benson. "The City: Rhetoric of Rhythm." Communication Monographs 48 (1981): 54-72.

    Neupert, Richard J. The End: Narration and Closure in the Cinema. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1995.

    Newman, Marc T., ed. A Rhetorical Analysis of Popular American Film. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1993.

    Nichols, Bill. Ideology and the Image: Social Representation in the Cinema and Other Media. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981.

    Nichols, Bill, ed. Movies and Methods. 2 vols. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976, 1985).

    Nichols, Bill. Blurred Boundaries: Questions of Meaning in Contemporary Culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

    Nothstine, William L., Carole Blair, and Gary A. Copeland, eds. Critical Questions: Invention, Creativity, and the Criticism of Discourse and Media. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.

    Payne, David. "The Wizard of Oz: Therapeutic Rhetoric in a Contemporary Media Ritual." Quarterly Journal of Speech 75 (1989): 25-39.

    Penley, Constance, ed. Feminism and Film Theory. New York: Routledge, 1988.

    Perry, Ted. "A Contextual Study of M. Antonioni's Film L'Eclisse." Speech Monographs 37 (1970): 79-100.

    Rabinovitz, Lauren. "Sitcoms and Single Moms: Representations of Feminism on American TV." Cinema Journal 29.1 (Fall 1989): 3-19.

    Rosteck, Thomas. See It Now Confronts McCarthyism: Television Documentary and the Politics of Representation. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1994.

    Rushing, Janice Hocker. "The Rhetoric of the American Western Myth." Communication Monographs 50 (1983): 14-32.

    Rushing, Janice Hocker. "E.T. as a Rhetorical Transcendence." Quarterly Journal of Speech 71 (1985): 188-203.

    Rushing, Janice Hocker. "Evolution of 'The New Frontier' in Alien and Aliens: Patriarchal Co-optation of the Feminine Archetype." Quarterly Journal of Speech 75 (1989): 1-24.

    Rushing, Janice Hocker, and Thomas S. Frentz. "The Rhetoric of Rocky: A Social Value Model of Criticism." Western Journal of Speech Communication 42 (1978): 63-72.

    Rushing, Janice Hocker, and Thomas S. Frentz. "The Deer Hunter: Rhetoric of the Warrior." Quarterly Journal of Speech 66 (1980): 392-406.

    Rushing, Janice Hocker, and Thomas S. Frentz. Projecting the Shadow: The Cyborg Hero in American Film. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

    Silverman, Kaja. The Subject of Semiotics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

    Solomon, Martha, and Wayne J. McMullen. "Places in the Heart: The Rhetorical Force of an Open Text." Western Journal of Speech Communication 55 (1991): 339- .

    Studlar, Gaylyn. "Masochistic Performance and Female Subjectivity in Letter from an Unknown Woman." Cinema Journal 33.3 (1994): 35-57.

    Tashiro, Charles Shiro. "'Reading' Design in The Go-Between." Cinema Journal 33.1 (1993): 17-34.

    Thompson, Kristin. Eisenstein's Ivan the Terrible: A Neoformalist Analysis. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981.

    Vaughn, Thomas. "Voices of Sexual Distortion: Rape, Birth, and Self-Annihilation Metaphors in the Alien Trilogy." Quarterly Journal of Speech 81 (1995): 423-435.

    White, Susan. "I Burn for Him: Female Masochism and the Iconography of Melodrama in Stahl's Back Street." Post Script 14.1-2 (1994-1995): 59-80.

    Willoquet-Maricondi, Paula. "Full-Metal-Jacketing, or Masculinity in the Making." Cinema Journal 33.2 (1994): 5-21.

    Winston, Brian. Claiming the Real: The Documentary Film Revisited. London: British Film Institute, 1995.

    Wollen, Peter. Signs and Meaning in the Cinema. 3d ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1972.

    Wright, Will. Sixguns and Society: A Structural Study of the Western. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.

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