The History of Art Education Time Line 1890-1899
Decades of art education history in contexts of schooling and artworlds

Year
Events
1890
  • Milton Bradley publishes the book Colour in the Kindergarten. This book, the last in a series of four, teaches children the standard six colors. Along with this series, Bradley also develops kindergarten manuals and newsletters to aid teachers in teaching color theory to their students. [Sara Rasyinger, Spring 2002]
  • Milton Bradley, who began his career as a lithographer, wrote the book Color in Kindergarten which introduced six standard colors and their complements. He also produced color construction paper to be used in the classroom. A big supporter of the Kindergarten movement, he encouraged the use of prisms, color paper and color wheels to help children learn color and as a result developed colored construction paper and other art supplies to assist color learning in kindergarten. [Susan Tremblay, Spring 2002]
1893
  • In 1893 Gabriel Lippmann developed the photochrome and the first color portrait was produced. The process for the print involved pouring pure mercury over the plate on the side of emulsion, which faces away from thecamera lens during exposure to light. This procedure turned the plate intoa mirror and the waves of light were reflected off the mirror and back into the incoming waves. A pattern of interference from the waves is left on the plate to produce the image. Today, photochromes are obsolete, but they were very influential in the development of modern day color photography. Even with the discovery that photographs could be done in color, many photographers saw color photos as out of place in photography until the 1960s and 1970s when colors being used in commercial advertisement spread over to the art world. [Christina Shearer, Fall 2002]
1895
  • November 8, 1895, the first radiograph or x-ray image was produced by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen. The image produced by the x-ray is known as a phonogram, which is as "a photograph with complete interior orientation" (Hallert, 1970). The process Roentgen discovered was to take a photo plate and place it behind an object that was getting struck by beams of cathode rays. Differing from W.H. Fox Talbot's discovery of the negative process in 1840, this discovery propelled the use of photography into many other areas such as chemistry and other sciences. However, without Talbot's invention x-ray photographs possibly wouldn't have been discovered. The radiograph brought about different perspectives and techniques to be used in photographic education. Albert C. Koetsier, a modern day photographer, has found a way to use x-ray imaging in his unique photographs. [Christina Shearer, Fall 2002]
1896
  • In this year, the well-known psychologist Jean Piaget was born. One of Piaget's most recognized theories dealt with the stages of cognitive development in children. Piaget stressed that children go through a series of stages in development that allow them to grasp certain understandings at certain times in their development. He felt that it was important to support a child with the right kind of education that fit his or her own developmental needs. Piaget believed children progress through four stages: the sensory-motor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operations stage, and, finally, the formal operations stage. These stages of intellectual development in a child highly relate to the general developmental patterns children undergo with artistic development, especially with drawing development in children. [Elizabeth Ann Reindl, Fall 2002]
1896
  • John Dewey creates the Laboratory School at the University of Chicago. It was an experimental elementary school that contributed to the development of Progressive Education. There were a wide variety of activities available for the students. [Mandy Hummer, Spring 2002]
  • John Dewey began an experimental school with twelve students and two teachers at the University of Chicago. This school was intended to allow the children to grow mentally, physically, and socially. In addition, it was intended to teach children to become creative, critical thinkers and a place where the children would learn life. Lastly, John Dewey seriously believed that the children should grow as individuals and experiment with their naturally born curiosity and their desire to be social. [Shannon Fulmer, Spring 2002]
1896
  • The Carnegie Museum of Art opens in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Carnegie is arguably the first museum of modern art in the United States. Along with its vast collection of European and American art, the museum offers an assortment of art classes and summer camps to learners of all ages [Shana Siegel, Spring 2002]
1896
  • Homer Plessy, a 30-year old black man, is jailed for sitting in the "white" car of the East Louisiana Railroad. Plessy goes to court arguing his arrest violates the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery, and the Fourteenth Amendment, which states that every American citizen is to be treated equally. On May 18th, a decision is reached in the Plessy v. Ferguson case. It is decided that separate facilities for blacks and whites are constitutional as long as they are equal. This "separate but equal" idea quickly spread to other public facilities such as restaurants, rest rooms, and public schools. [Kristen Brady, Spring 2002]
1896
  • Henry Ford (1863-1947) designs his own self-propelled Quadricycle with four white wheels that looked much like bicycle wheels, steering like that of a boat tiller, and with only two forward speeds. In 1908 the famous Model T begins being manufactured, and in America, creates a new platform for design, style, and creation in the form of transportation. [Sara Goblinger, Spring 2002]
1897
  • In 1897 James Hall made a bold step when he declared in his book, With Brush and Pen, that art teaching should promote children's creativity and self-expression and encourage them to see and create beauty. He discouraged earlier art teaching methods, such as those promoted by Walter Smith, because he said that they limited children's imaginations. [Michele Warhurst, Spring 2002]
1898
  • The Worcester Art Museum was opened by Stephen Salisbury III, who declared that it was "for the benefit of all people." It has been described as the finest small scale art musem in the country and its collection spans 50 centuries. [Jaimeson Daley, Spring 2002]
1898
  • Eugene Ashton and Ella Perry publish the Perry Magazine for School and Home through 1906. The Perry Magazine was a marketing and communications vehicle from a company involved in schoolroom decoration and the picture study movement at the end of the nineteenth century. The magazine promoted the use of small, inexpensive, reproductions of fine art and contemporary photographs in lessons. Many of the articles in the Perry Magazine contained lessons about moral and ethical issues as well as art history and art appreciation. The content of the Perry Magazine was determined by the economic, social, and political issues of the day. Eugene and Ella met as school principals in Provincetown, Massachusetts. The story of their marriage and business is one of success as capitalist ventures. Having been teachers they understood what teachers needed. The Perry Magazine had a large influence on the introduction of art appreciation and art reproductions into the public school curriculum. Before the publication of the Perry Magazine only the elite had access to fine art. [Ann Rahoi, Fall 2002]