The History of Art Education Time Line 1880-1889
Decades of art education history in contexts of schooling and artworlds

Year
Events
1880
  • The Child Study movement was underway, led by psychologists and educators who agreed that schools needed to serve new functions and should adapt to the needs of the developing child. The education system was evolving from an institution that treated children as miniature adults into one that focused on specific needs and individualism in children. The catalysts for the movement included G. Stanley Hall, Freud, and Dewey. [Karen Rutt, Spring 2002]
1880
  • March 30 - Opening of the Metropolitan Museum building in Central Park, New York City. This was also the end of the "Nomadic" Metropolitan Museum for it now had a permanent building. This grand opening was just the beginning of many more art museums in New York City and other big cities around the United States. Art museums and institutions are dedicated not only to displaying art for the general public, but also to educating them. [Elizabeth Garlena, Spring 2002]
1881
  • Charles Leland opens the Industrial Art School in Philadelphia enrolling 150 students with the goal of encouraging not only mental development but also preparing children for work. Students, ranging from ages 12 to 15, were selected from grammar school to be in these manual training programs. First the students were trained in design and drawing and then in such areas as wood-cutting and needlework. The huge success of the school influenced other educational institutions at the time. [Susan Tremblay, Spring 2002]
1883
  • Some thirty years after its own start, the National Education Association establishes a Department of Art. Not only does it give educators guidelines and ideas to use in the classroom, but the NEA discusses and aids in solving major issues in education. [Eva Tarbuk, Spring 2002]
1884
  • J. Liberty Tadd becomes director of the Philadelphia Industrial Art School. Tadd pioneered the concepts of drawing instruction in connection with the two halves of the brain. Among his ideas were ambidextrous drawing, drawing with the non-dominant hand, and drawing with the eyes closed. [Sara Raysinger, Spring 2002]
1884
  • Unsatisfied with common schools, Catholic immigrants, especially Irish Catholics, found it necessary to open their own schools. Catholic parents did not want their children to go to the public schools because they were dominated by Protestant values. The Catholic children in public schools were plagued with anti-Catholic and anti-Irish statements in textbooks and with ridicule from peers. This struggle raised the question of whether common schools were truly common, and also marked the beginning of the parochial school system in America. Art educators have had to re-think the values that they teach through their projects, specifically, for example, the Anglo values taught with use of holiday art assigned for Christian holidays (i.e. Christmas projects: stockings, Santa Clauses, Christmas trees). [Elizabeth Blair, Fall 2002]
1887
  • Charles Pratt always dreamed of establishing an institution where students could learn through the "skillful use of their hands". On October 17, 1887, Pratt opened the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York. Today, students go through a rigorous admissions process to study art and design. architecture, and several other programs of study. Pratt Institute follows the motto "be true to your work and your work will be true to you" [Gretchen Egelkamp, Fall 2002]
  • The Pratt Institute of New York was established by Charles Pratt to provide training for artist and draftsmen. It contained normal art departments whose purpose was to prepare art teachers and supervisors. Pratt dreamt of finding an institution where pupils could learn trades through the skillful use of their hands. [Emily Chiang, Spring 2002]
1888
  • George Eastman developed the first mass-produced camera that could be store-bought known as the "Kodak." This innovation made it possible for amateurs to own cameras and explore the medium of photography. By producing smaller, less expensive cameras, Eastman's invention helped to increase the popularity and further exploration of photography, thus broadening the horizons of learning about art through photography. [Tessa Gross, Spring 2002]