WHAT IS BALANCE AND MOTION?

 

SECTION ONE: Identifying standards and objectives

 

Essential Elements of Inquiry:

·        Engage in scientifically oriented questions

·        Give priority to evidence

·        Draw conclusions or formulate explanations

·        Connect and evaluate explanations with scientific knowledge

·        Communicate and justify proposed explanations

 

Correlation with National Science Education Standards:

 

Content Standards:  K - 4

 

Science as Inquiry Content Standard A:  As a result of the activities in grades K – 4, all students should develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry and understanding about scientific inquiry.

 

 

Physical Science Content Standard B:  As a result of the activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of properties of objects and materials and position and motion of objects.

 

 

Science and Technology Content Standard E:  As a result of activities in grades K-4, all students should develop abilities of technological design and an understanding about science and technology.

 

·        Propose a solution.

·        Implementing proposed solutions.

·        Evaluate a product or design.

·        People have always had questions about their world. Science is one way of answering questions and explaining the natural world.

·        Scientists and engineers often work in teams with different individuals doing different things that contribute to the results. This understanding focuses primarily on teams working together and secondarily, on the combination of scientist and engineer teams.

 

Correlation with PA Department of Education Academic Standards for Science and Technology:

 

Inquiry and Design

 

3.2.4.A.  Identify and use the nature of scientific and technological knowledge.

·        Distinguish between a scientific fact and a belief.

·        Provide clear explanations that account for observations and results.

·        Relate how new information can change existing perceptions.

 

3.2.4.B.  Describe objects in the world using the five senses.

·        Use observations to develop a descriptive vocabulary.

 

3.2.4.C.  Recognize and use the elements of scientific inquiry to solve problems.

·        Conduct an experiment.

·        State a conclusion that is consistent with the information.

 

3.2.4.D.  Recognize and use the technological design process to solve problems.

·        Identify possible solutions and their course of action.

·        Try a solution.

·        Describe the solution, identify its impacts and modify if necessary

·        Show the steps taken and the results.

 

Physical Science, Chemistry, and Physics

 

3.4.4.C.  Observe and describe different types of force and motion.

·        Describe various types of motions.

·        Compare the relative movement of objects and describe types of motion that are evident.

 

Technological Devices

 

3.7.4.A.  Explore the use of basic tools, simple materials, and techniques to safely solve problems.

·        Select and safely apply appropriate tools and materials to solve simple problems.

 

3.7.4.B.  Select appropriate instruments to study materials.

·        Develop simple skills to measure, record, cut, and fasten.

 

Correlation with PA Department of Education Academic Standards for reading, writing, listening, and speaking:

 

1.6.3.B.  Listen to a selection of literature.

·        Relate it to similar experiences.

·        Identify and define new words and concepts. 

1.6.3.D.  Contribute to discussions.

·        Respond with appropriate information or opinions to questions asked.

·        Listen to and acknowledge the contribution of others.

·        Display turn-taking behaviors.

 

LESSON 1:  ENGAGE

 

Enduring Understandings:

·        Tight rope walkers have to use their balance in order to be able to move themselves across a high wire, so they do not fall over (they are in a state of equilibrium).

·        They also must keep their center of gravity (the point around which body mass is equally distributed) directly over the wire which is there base of support.

·        We are balanced as humans when we stand on our own two feet.

·        The larger our base the more chance we have of not falling over, so the most stable position is to lie down on our backs.

·        A crayfish can be balanced on one’s hand by finding where the center of gravity is and placing your finger there.

Essential Questions:

·        How are tight rope walkers able to move across a high wire without falling over?

·        Where is most of their body weight when they are walking on a high wire?

·        How can we balance ourselves as humans, on which of our body parts the best?

·        What is the most stable position that we can balance ourselves?

·        How many different ways could you balance a crayfish on your hand?

Performance standards:

To meet the standards, students will be able to:

·        Describe how tight rope walkers are able to walk on a wire and not fall over.

·        Explain how a tight rope walker distributes their weight.

·        Provide an idea of how we can be balanced as humans using our body parts.

·        Tell what the most stable position that we can be in using our bodies is.

·        Offer ideas about how a paper crayfish could be balanced using body parts.

SECTION TWO: Identifying assessment

EVALUATE: Learners review and assess what they have learned and how they have learned it.

Pre-Assessment:

Formative:

Summative:

 SECTION THREE: Identifying lesson activities

ENGAGE: Learners become interested, raise questions, and focus attention on target concepts.

·        Write the word balance on the board and ask the students if they have ever heard of or seen the word before.

·        Take a few suggestions as to what they think the word means.

·        Anticipate the students focusing on balancing objects on their own body parts and not necessarily foreign objects.

·        Encourage them to listen to the story that is going to be read so they can get some ideas about what balance means.

·        Read the book, Mirette on the High Wire, making sure to check for understanding throughout by asking questions especially related to what the tight rope walkers are doing to balance themselves.

·        Focus particularly on the part of the book where Mirette tries to walk on the rope for the first time because she first has to learn how to balance before she can begin walking.  Use this as a lead in for talking about motion.  Note that Mirette first stood on the rope, then she took a few steps, and finally she was able to walk the complete length only because she was balanced.

·        After the book is completed ask students how they think Mirette and Bellini were able to stay on the high wire.

·        Try to focus their responses around the idea of center of gravity.  Anticipate that they will say because they balanced themselves.  Tell the students then further that they were able to balance their center of gravity around the rope, their support base in order to balance.

·        Have this lead into a KWL chart especially the K part.  Have students generate ideas based on what they know about balance or what they have read in the story.

·        Illustrate for students how standing on two feet is more stable than standing on just one.

·        Ask what the most stable position your body can be in is.

·        Encourage the students to think about two limbs, four limbs, and then either their backs or stomachs.

·        Affirm the fact that lying down is the most balanced position for the body to be in.

·        Introduce either the crayfish and try to have them balance on their hands.

·        Wrap up making sure students understand how things can be balanced and in what position they are most stable.

·        Lead into the idea about motion by encouraging students to think about what would happen if they were to spin the crayfish around on their fingers.

·        Let them think about this for the next time.

Materials:

·        Book Mirette on the High Wire

·        20 paper crayfish

·        Plain paper for KWL chart

·        Markers for writing down ideas about balance

 

LESSON TWO:  EXPLORE A – TRIANGLES AND ARCHES

 

Enduring Understandings:

·        In order to balance an object on your finger you have to find the spot where its center of gravity is equally distributed over its base of support, which is the finger.

·        When adding weight to objects and balancing them on a finger, that changes where it is going to be stable.

·        Weight is placed lower on an object when you want to get it balanced.

·        In order to get an object to balance straight up and down, an equal amount of weight must be added to both sides.  For example with a paper crayfish, more clothespins (the weight) need to go on either side of the tail.

·        A system can be balanced when the counterweights (weight added to change the center of gravity) are below the balance point.  For example when balancing an arch on a Popsicle stick the clothespins (counterweights) have to be below the Popsicle stick (the balance point).

Essential Questions:

·        How can I balance an object by just using my fingers?  Does it matter if I use the side or tips of them?  Which way is harder?

·        What happens to the stability of an object if more weight is added?

·        Where should the weight be added to an object in order to make it balanced?

·        Does the weight have to be evenly distributed on an object when it is trying to be balanced straight up and down?

·        What is counterweight and how does it affect the center of gravity and stability of an object?

Performance standards:

To meet the standards, students will be able to:

·        Balance paper crayfish on their fingers using both the tips and sides of them.

·        Add weight in the form of clothespins to the paper crayfish and be able to still balance them on their fingers.

·        Identify where the weight should be added in order for the object to be balanced.

·        Observe that the weight must be evenly distributed on an object when it being balanced straight up and down through the manipulation of the paper crayfish.

·        Stabilize paper shapes of triangles and arches on Popsicle sticks using clothespins as counterweights.

·        Identify using a worksheet what makes a system stable based on where the counterweight is.

SECTION TWO: Identifying assessment

EVALUATE: Learners review and assess what they have learned and how they have learned it.

Pre-Assessment:

Formative:

Summative:

·        A worksheet will be completed that asks students to identify stable systems.

 SECTION THREE: Identifying lesson activities

EXPLORE A:

·        Distribute the paper crayfish to the students and ask them to review balancing them on their fingers using both the tips and the sides of them.

·        Introduce the idea of adding counterweights to the crayfish by demonstrating how adding clothespins will change the stability of the object.

·        Give the students about 10 minutes to explore balancing the crayfish with clothespins on their fingers in all different positions in groups of about 2 or 3.

·        Discuss with them where the clothespins had to be in order for the crayfish to balance on its side and straight up and down.

·        Make sure they provide answers like below their fingers and on both sides equally.

·        Distribute the triangles and arches to each student.

·        Tell them that they are going to use the “Stable Positions” worksheet in order to test stable positions for the triangle and arches only this time they will do it on Popsicle sticks and not their fingers.

·        Give each student a Popsicle stick to tape to their desk and ask them to first experiment with balancing both the triangle and the arch using the clothespins in different positions.

·        Introduce the idea of counterweights and how the clothespins are affecting the center of gravity and thus the stability of the object.

·        Hand out the worksheet and allow students to correct their answers by physically testing the positions illustrated on the worksheet.

·        Close with a discussion about where the clothespins need to be in order for the system to be balanced.

·        Make sure the students say below the Popsicle sticks.

Materials:

 

LESSON 3:  EXPLORE B – PENCIL TRICK

Enduring Understandings:

·        Many different objects and shapes can balance on Popsicle sticks.

·        In order for systems to be balanced, counterweight must be added below the balance point.

·        Weight does not need to be added though to get a stable system as with the paper hand-and-pencil picture; however, it may make it easier.

·        A stable system is still balanced even though it may be wobbling back and forth as long as it does not fall over.

·        Balance is achieved when an object is put in motion and then comes to a resting point.

Essential Questions:

·        Am I able to balance a paper hand-and-pencil picture on a Popsicle stick?

·        How many clothespins can I add to this system in order for it to still stay balanced?

·        Where do I have to place the clothespins in order for it to be stable?

·        Do I even have to add any clothespins?

·        Am I able to balance the pencil-wire system on the end of a Popsicle stick using clothespins as counterweights?

·        If I get the pencil to stay on the Popsicle stick, but it is still wobbling, does that mean it is balanced?

·        How was I able to get the pencil-wire system to come to a rest after I put it in motion?

Performance standards:

To meet the standards, students will be able to:

·        Balance a paper hand-and-pencil picture on a Popsicle stick exploring how and where clothespins are added affects the stability.

·        Identify how the placement of the clothespins affects the stability of the system.

·        Try and get a pencil-wire system to balance on a Popsicle stick using clothespins as counterweights.

·        State whether a wobbling system that is not falling over is still balanced.

·        Make conclusions as to why this trick was difficult to do and how they could balance other objects on top of different things.

SECTION TWO: Identifying assessment

EVALUATE: Learners review and assess what they have learned and how they have learned it.

Pre-Assessment:

Formative:

Summative:

·        A discussion will take place in which students identify why it was hard to balance the pencil.

·        The students will also be invited to make conclusions about other stable systems based on what they learned in this lesson.

 SECTION THREE: Identifying lesson activities

EXPLORE B:

·        Review with the students the rules that apply when working with science materials as today we will be using wire.

·        Review with students the idea of counterweight by allowing them to remember what was done with the triangles and arches and where the clothespins needed to be placed in order for the system to balance.

·        Have 2 clothespins ready on each student’s desk along with a previously taped Popsicle stick.

·        Tell the students today they will get an opportunity to balance pencils on Popsicle sticks just like the paper hand-and-pencil picture shows.

·        Distribute the hand-and-pencil pictures

·        Instruct students to try and balance the picture first without any clothespins.

·        See if they can do it then by adding clothespins.

·        Review again where the clothespins need to be placed in order to make the system balanced.

·        Challenge the students to see how many clothespins they can add and still have the picture balanced.

·        After the students are done, talk about their findings and then collect the paper hand-and-pencil pictures.

·        Tell them now they will be given the opportunity to balance real pencils.

·        Distribute the pencils and pieces of wire.

·        Show them the two different ways that the wire can be used on the pencil.

·        Remind the students though that the wire cannot be used to fasten the pencil to the Popsicle stick.

·        Tell them to use clothespins with their system and give them the opportunity to try and balance it.

·        Reassure them that it may take a while to get it.

·        Make sure they understand that even if they system is wobbling it is still balanced if it is not falling over.

·        Close the lesson by discussing why this was so hard.

·        Offer suggestions as to what other types of systems students could balance and if time permits allow them to draw one.

·        They may choose from the following:

1.      Balancing a fork on its points on the edge of a table.

2.      Balancing a Popsicle stick on a two-liter bottle of soda.

3.      Balancing a paper cup on a tight string.

4.      Balance a chair on a tight tope so could sit on it (make reference to Mirette on the High Wire).

Materials:

 

LESSON 4:  EXPLORE C – MOBILES

Enduring Understandings:

·        A mobile is a kind of art sculpture that has interesting shapes and pictures hanging from balanced rods.

·        The interesting shapes to be used are decorated index cards, which will hang with paper clips and rubber bands from straws.

·        The objects hanging off of the straw can be balanced in a certain way on the mobile by moving them along the straw (rod).

·        If one end of the straw is too low, the index cards hanging must be moved toward the balance point, which is the center.

Essential Questions:

·        What is a mobile?

·        Can you think of any examples? (wind chimes)

·        How we will use different objects to make mobiles?

·        How can the objects hanging from the mobile be moved around so the system balances?

·        Where must the objects be closest too if there are problems with the mobile being uneven on either side?

Performance standards:

To meet the standards, students will be able to:

·        Define what a mobile is by looking at an example made by the teacher and also by making one themselves.

·        Brainstorm some examples of mobiles in every day life.

·        Use index cards, rubber bands, paper clips, and straws to make mobiles.

·        Get the objects on their mobile to balance by observing how the movement of the hanging objects affects the balance.

·        Identify where the hanging objects must be moved in order for balance to be achieved.

SECTION TWO: Identifying assessment

EVALUATE: Learners review and assess what they have learned and how they have learned it.

Pre-Assessment:

Formative:

Summative:

·        The students will be asked to make mobiles and have a discussion on how they got each of theirs to balance (see rubric).

SECTION THREE: Identifying lesson activities

EXPLORE C:

·        Have two mobiles previously assembled.

·        Use the one from the packet to begin the mini-lesson.

·        Hold up the mobile and give students the definition of a mobile.

·        Ask them to think of examples of different types of mobiles maybe offering wind chimes as an example.

·        Point out to the students what the mobile is made up of and how the terms in the definition correlate with the straws the paper clips, and rubber bands, and the index cards.

·        Illustrate the balance idea for the students by moving the hanging objects up and down the rods. 

·        Ask them why they think this is a hard mobile to balance.

·        Make sure they understand that it is because there are two index cards on one side and only one on the other. 

·        Where should the hanging objects be moved to based on this idea.

·        Point out the hanging piece that has two index cards on it will have to be closer to the balance point (the center of the mobile).

·        Explain to the students they will get a chance to make a mobile but it will not look exactly like this one.

·        When the lesson resumes and it is time for the students to make their own mobiles review again the science rules with them.  Tell them there are lots of materials involved, so they will need to follow all directions.

·        Hold up a pre-assembled mobile to show students the kind they will be making and that it differs from the one they were previously shown.

·        Pass out the pre-decorated index cards with punch holes already in them.

·        Pass out the remaining materials telling students to only touch them when they are told since different things will be used at different types.

·        Take them through the process of assembling a mobile.

·        When they are finished and all have their hanging objects balanced have a discussion about whether it was easier or more difficult to balance this one than the one they were shown during the mini-lesson.

·        Make sure they know it was easier because they had an equal amount of weight on both sides so their hanging objects should be equidistant from the center on each side.

·        Tell the students this is the end of the balance portion of the unit and motion will now be discussed.

·        Maybe tell them that if their mobiles were blowing in the wind they would be moving as a transition into next lesson.

Materials:

For each student:

Class totals:

For the teacher:

 

LESSON 5:  EXPLORE D – SPINNERS STATIONS

Enduring Understandings:

·        A force is a push or a pull that is needed to get something moving or make it come to a stop.  Even if an object is at rest there is still a force acting on it, which is the one pulling down on it:  gravity.

·        Motion happens whenever an object changes place.

·        There are two types of motion:  rotational and linear.

·        Spinning is a type of rotational motion that many different objects display.

·        Tops are a good example of spinning.

·        Precession is what occurs when the top begins to slow its spinning down and its axis moves in a circle.

·        The speed of spinning objects changes depending on factors such as weight, size, string length, etc.

Essential Questions:

·        What is a force?

·        What is motion?

·        What are the two types of motion?

·        What is an example of rotational motion?

·        What are the different types of objects that display spinning?

·        What is precession as it relates to spinning objects?

·        What factors influence the speed of spinning objects?

Performance standards:

To meet the standards, students will be able to:

·        Define what a force is by applying the principle to a stationary human body.

·        Demonstrate what motion is by observing different types of objects and how they move and how a force is involved in starting their motion and stopping it.

·        Illustrate what rotational motion looks like especially spinning using funnels, coins, soda bottles, tops, and yo-yo’s to name a few.

·        Explain the path that objects take when they spin, so they are able to draw a picture illustrating precession in three different stages.

·        Build tops in order to see how putting various disk sizes affects the speed of the spinning.  Apply various designs to the tops in order to observe the how the speed changes what the designs look like.

·        Use yo-yo’s and zoomers to determine whether size and the string length affects spinning.

SECTION TWO: Identifying assessment

EVALUATE: Learners review and assess what they have learned and how they have learned it.

Pre-Assessment:

Formative:

Summative:

·        The students will be asked to draw a picture illustrating precession as most of the objects they observed spinning went through this process.

·        They will also be asked to report how string length and weight affected the spinning of yo-yo’s and zoomers.

SECTION THREE: Identifying lesson activities

EXPLORE D:

·        The students will first be asked what force is.

·        The teacher will display that forces are acting on all objects all the time using his/her body.

·        They will then asked what they think motion is and what are the different ways that objects can move.

·        Encourage them to think about linear and rotational motion.

·        Move toward rotational motion by asking students to generate a list off all the different objects that they have observed spinning.

·        Tell them they will now move through three different station so they can observe different objects spinning in different ways.

·        The first station will use items mentioned below.  Tell the students the goal for this station is to observe precession as they will draw a picture of the path that objects take as they are spinning.  The drawings should show an object spinning vertically, then beginning to wobble, and finally laying flat down.

·        The second station will allow students to build tops using items mentioned below.  Inform students they must pay attention to how different sized disks affect the speed of the spinning.  Encourage the students to also put on different designs to the disks using paper clips.  The designs could be either prepared or made by the students.

·        At the last station, the students can use zoomers and yo-yo’s to see how weight and string length affects spinning.  Also objects on strings can be spun in different ways.  Tell the students at this station they must figure out what factors affect the spinning because they have not used objects with strings before.

·        Give the students about 10 – 15 minutes at each station.

·        When they are done bring them back together and have them draw their picture of precession.

·        Then discuss the tops and finally the yo-yo’s and zoomers and how the factors mentioned above affected their spinning.

Materials:

Station 1:  Different types of spinning

Station 2:  Building tops

Station 3:  Yo-yo’s and Zoomers

Other Materials:

 

LESSON 6:  EXPLORE E – PINWHEELS

Enduring Understandings:

·        Friction is a force that moving objects always have to overcome because it slows them down.

·        One force that is always available for movement is the wind.

·        Sail boats are objects that benefit from the wind as an energy source.

·        A pinwheel has four sails around a central axis which allows it to spin using rotational motion.

Essential Questions:

·        What is friction and how does it affect motion?

·        What is an energy source that is usually always available?

·        What types of things benefit from using wind as their force for movement?

·        How is a pinwheel able to spin?

Performance standards:

To meet the standards, students will be able to:

·        Define what friction is by observing the movement of pinwheels and how they eventually slow down after spinning.

·        Observe how the wind generated by them is able to move the pinwheel around in a circle.

·        Generate a list of items that benefit from using wind as their energy source.

·        Make a pinewheel.

SECTION TWO: Identifying assessment

EVALUATE: Learners review and assess what they have learned and how they have learned it.

Pre-Assessment:

Formative:

Summative:

·        The students will be asked to make a pinwheel to illustrate how wind can affect movement especially spinning.

SECTION THREE: Identifying lesson activities

EXPLORE E:

·        A short review will take place of the terms force, motion, and rotational motion as that is what was learned in the last lesson.

·        The students will then be introduced to the concept of friction as they generate reasons for why objects do not continue to move and usually always come to a stop.

·        They will then be asked to think about an energy source that is always available for movement.

·        Lead them in the direction of something outdoors that sail boats use if they are having trouble.

·        Generate a list of objects that benefit from using the wind as their energy source.

·        Tell students they will get the opportunity to make pinwheels and use their mouths as energy sources to get them spinning.

·        Make the pinwheels by first distributing the already cut construction paper

·        Tell the students next to tape/glue every other corner in to the center

·        Pass out the straws and brass fasteners.

·        Go around to the students and make holes in their straws for them so they can attach their construction paper.

·        When they are done, ask the students why the pinwheel is spinning.

·        Lead them towards the fact that it is moving around a central axis with its four sails.

Materials:

For each student:

For the class:

 

LESSON 7:  EXPLORE F – BOX OF ROCKS

Enduring Understandings:

·        Rolling is another form of motion that objects can display that can include both linear and rotational motion.

·        Objects move more easily when they are on wheels.

·        The more weight you add to an object the greater the friction becomes as it harder to keep it going because more force is required to overcome friction.

Essential Questions:

·        What is rolling?

·        How do objects that roll exhibit both linear and rotational motion?

·        What is one thing that can be added to an object to make it move more easily?

·        What happens to the movement of a system as more weight is added?

·        How does friction affect the movement of objects?

Performance standards:

To meet the standards, students will be able to:

·        Explain what rolling is by reporting different instances when they have observed rolling.

·        Provide examples of objects that can exhibit linear and rotational motion.

·        Use a shoe box and some rocks to display what adding weight to a system does.

·        Explore how the friction changes when the weight is taken away versus when it is present.

SECTION TWO: Identifying assessment

EVALUATE: Learners review and assess what they have learned and how they have learned it.

Pre-Assessment:

Formative:

Summative:

·        The students will experiment with a box and some rocks.  They will be told that the box should move straight but that they can add something in the form of a roller to make it easier.

SECTION THREE: Identifying lesson activities

EXPLORE F:

·        A short review will take place of the terms associated with spinning especially rotational motion and friction as students will continue to learn about these ideas as they are associated with rolling.

·        The students will be asked to generate a list of objects they have seen rolling before.

·        They will have to specify whether the object was exhibiting linear or rotational motion or both.

·        Explain to the students how both types of motion are possible especially relating back to the rolling cups that were used to start the unit.

·        Inform the students they will be given the opportunity to experiment with a system where overcoming the frictional force is going to be difficult because they are going to be using rocks and a rubber band to pull them.

·        Call the students back to the carpet and have the materials described below all in the center. 

·        Guide the students through the steps of putting the box together so first there is no weight.

·        Then add the rocks and see if they can pull the box.

·        Finally add pencils for the wheels under the box so students can see how easy rollers can make motion.

·        Encourage a class discussion where the connection is made between the fact that more weight added more friction to the system and the pencils made the frictional force less.

Materials:

 

LESSON 8:  EXPLORE G – RUNWAYS

Enduring Understandings:

·        Wheels, cups, and spheres are all objects that roll.

·        In order for wheels to stand up and roll they need an axle, cups always exhibit rotational motion, and spheres can move in any direction.

·        Rollers will move faster down slopes because they are higher on one end.

·        Runways can be set up so that marbles can roll down them if they are started at the high end of the runway as with slopes.

Essential Questions:

·        What are some examples of objects that roll?

·        What is the direction that each of these objects rolls in when they are released?

·        Why do slopes cause faster movement in rollers?

·        How do runways have to be set up in order for marbles to make it the whole way down them?

Performance standards:

To meet the standards, students will be able to:

·        Identify objects that roll particularly wheels, cups, and spheres.

·        Recognize what different directions these objects roll in based on their properties.

·        Explain how slopes affect the movement of rollers.

·        Set up a runway using plastic foam so that a marble can make it the whole way down.

SECTION TWO: Identifying assessment

EVALUATE: Learners review and assess what they have learned and how they have learned it.

Pre-Assessment:

Formative:

Summative:

·        The students will actually set up the runways they brainstormed so that the marble they are using as a sphere does actually roll from beginning to end of the runway.

SECTION THREE: Identifying lesson activities

EXPLORE G:

·        The students will be given a short review of the ideas associated with motion and friction that they learned about in the last lesson with rolling.

·        They will then be asked to think of different objects that they have seen rolling making sure that it is emphasized that it can be either rotational or linear motion.

·        Encourage them to think about wheels, cups, and marbles or spheres in particular

·        Discuss with the students how these objects roll differently and why they do so based on their certain physical characteristics.

·        Propose an idea to the students about runways and how they could get a marble to roll from one end to another without stopping.

·        Tell them they will have and opportunity to make runways using plastic foam and marbles.

·        Once the students make one runway encourage them to do in different ways including up and down hills, down and in a circle, loop-the-loop, and in a spiral.

·        Then give them the opportunity to put different runways together and even make one involving the whole class.

·        Tell them the object is to make sure the marble rolls the whole way from the beginning to the end.

Materials:

 

LESSON 9:  EXPLAIN – REVIEW GAME

·        Break the students up into four groups and direct them to four different areas of the room.

·        Next tell them that there are three different categories that they can choose from including balance, spinning, and rolling.

·        There are six questions in each category and they are all worth one point each.

·        The game will start with one team and then move clockwise to the rest of the teams.

·        If a team cannot answer a question or they get it wrong every other team will have a chance to steal it until someone gets it right.

·        The game will be based on the questions that follow.

Balance:

What is the most stable position for a human body to be positioned in?  Laying down

In the book, Mirette on the High Wire, what was the first thing that Mirette had to accomplish when she first stood on the rope before she could move?  Stand up on her feet without falling

What is the term used to describe adding weight to an object in order to get it balanced?  Counterweighing

Where must the counterweight be placed on the system if it is to balance?  Below the balance point

This term is used to describe a piece of art that has interesting shapes hanging from balanced rods?  Mobiles

When making mobiles, where did we have to move the hanging objects in order to get it to balance?  Toward the center

Spinning:

What is the term used to describe a push or a pull?  Force

What force works against moving objects to slow them down?  Friction

What is it called when spinning objects go through the process of coming to a rest, when they begin to wobble and their axis’ go around in circles?  Precession

Name an energy source that is always available for movement and it is also what we used to make our pinwheels spin?  Wind

What size disks should you use so you can design a top that spins very fast?  Many small disks

What type of motion, rotational or linear, is displayed when objects spin?  Rotational

Rolling:

What is an example of an object that rolls in a linear motion when two of them are taped together otherwise they would exhibit rotational motion?  Cups

What objects made the box of rocks easier to pull because they reduced the frictional force?  Pencils

Where does a marble have to start on a runway in order for it to roll the whole way down?  At the top or at the beginning

What is a term used to describe a hill that allows spheres to roll down freely?  A slope

What was one design used when making the runway?  Down and up a hill, Down then around a circle, Loop de Loop, and Spiral

What direction does a marble roll when it is placed on a sphere?  Straight down

Materials:

 

LESSON 10:  ELABORATE/EVALUATE – PLAYGROUND DESIGN AND POST-ASSESSMENT

Post-Assessment:

Balance:

  1. Draw a picture of a balanced system that has counterweight added to it (I want to know where the counterweight has to be for the system to balance).
  2. What is the most stable position for a human body to be positioned in? A) laying down B) standing on one foot C) standing on both feet
  3. When making a mobile where must the hanging objects be moved if they do not balance?  A) Towards the end of the rods B) Towards the center of the mobile C) You take them off

Spinning

  1. Name the term that is defined as a push or a pull.  A) force B) friction C) linear motion
  2. What type of motion is it when items spin around in circles?  A) rotational B) linear C) friction
  3. Draw a picture of what a top looks like as it spins and then slowly begins to stop.  I am looking for three different stages.

Rolling

  1. What is the force called that slows objects down when they are moving?  A) friction B) rotational motion C) gravity
  2. Draw a picture of one type of runway that you put together in which the marble successfully rolled down.
  3. Name one object that rolls.