INSYS 525 KNOWLEDGE BASE  

 

 
[THEORIES AND MODELS]
Elaboration Theory
Psychomotor
ARCS
ITT
Attitudinal Instruction

Landamatics

 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL SKILLS
- Alexander Romiszowski

Note: Most parts in "values"and"highlights" are direct quotations from the article in "references"

Values
• physical skills,
• automatizing physical skills,
• the integration of different approaches and apparently conflicting view-points.

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Highlights

The Skills Schema:
Reproductive skills: the ability to to respond to a stable environment.
Productive skills: the ability to continuous adjust to an unpredictable, changing environment, as during the football game.
Physical skills may be conceptualized as a continuum of "reproductive-to-productive".
• The skill schema is designed to combine a four-domain classification of skills with the reproductive-productive continuum, including cognitive skills, psychomotor skills, reactive skills, and interactive skills.

The Skills Cycle:
Romiszowski describes the information-processing occurring in the mind of performer during the execution of a psychomotor skill, and provides a model of psychomotor and cognitive actions involved.

According to Romiszowski, three basic categories of skilled behavior are postulated:
• perceive — perform
• perceive — recall prerequisites — perform
• perceive — recall prerequisites— plan — perform

The General Process of Psychomotor Skill Learning and Instruction:
Romiszowski suggests a skill-mastery model of five stages in the development of psychomotor skills:
Stage 1: Acquiring knowledge of what should be done, to what purposes, in what sequence, and by what means.
Stage 2: Executing the actions in a step-by-step manner, for each of the steps of the operation.
Stage 3: Transfer of control from the eyes to other senses or to kinesthetic control through muscular coordination.
Stage 4: Automatization of the skill. This stage is characterized by reduction of the need for conscious attention and "thinking through" of the actions.
Stage 5: Generalization of the skills to a continually greater range of application situations.This last stage applies to the productive/strategy/planning end of our skills continuum.

This model suggests three basic steps in the overall instructional process:
Step 1: Imparting the knowledge content.
Step 2: Imparting the basic skills.
Step 3: Developing proficiency.

Stages Steps
Stage 1: Acquiring knowledge Step 1: Imparting the knowledge content.
Stage 2: Executing the actions Step 2: Imparting the basic skills
Stage 3: Transfer Step 3: Developing proficiency.
Stage 4: Automatization of the skill.
Stage 5: Generalization of the skills

Instructional Tactics:
• Information (explanation, demonstration, and guidance),
• Practice (frequency, spacing, etc.),
• Feedback (frequency, form, quality, etc.),
• Transfer and generalization

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Concept Map

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Instructional Example

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Reflection

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References

Romiszowski , A. (1999). The development of physical skills: Instruction in the psychomotor domain. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.). Instructional-design theories and models: Volume II A new paradigm of instructional theory . Mahwah , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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Copyright © 2007 Ziyan Ma, INSYS, Penn State. All rights reserved.