THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL SKILLS
- Alexander Romiszowski
Note: Most parts in "values"and"highlights" are direct quotations from the article in "references"
automatizing physical skills,
the integration of different approaches and apparently conflicting view-points.
The Skills Schema:
Reproductive skills: the ability to to respond to a stable environment.
Productive skills: the ability to continuous adjust to an unpredictable, changing environment, as during the football game.
Physical skills may be conceptualized as a continuum of "reproductive-to-productive".
The skill schema is designed to combine a four-domain classification of skills with the reproductive-productive continuum, including cognitive skills, psychomotor skills, reactive skills, and interactive skills.
The Skills Cycle:
Romiszowski describes the information-processing occurring in the mind of performer during the execution of a psychomotor skill, and provides a model of psychomotor and cognitive actions involved.
According to Romiszowski, three basic categories of skilled behavior are postulated:
perceive — perform
perceive — recall prerequisites — perform
perceive — recall
prerequisites— plan — perform
The General Process of Psychomotor Skill Learning and Instruction:
a skill-mastery model of five stages in the development of psychomotor skills:
Acquiring knowledge of what should be done, to what purposes, in what sequence, and by what means.
Stage 2: Executing the actions in a step-by-step manner, for each of the steps of the operation.
Transfer of control from the eyes to other senses or to kinesthetic control through muscular coordination.
Automatization of the skill. This stage is characterized by reduction of the need for conscious attention and "thinking through" of the actions.
Generalization of the skills to a continually greater range of application situations.This last stage applies to the productive/strategy/planning end of our skills continuum.
This model suggests three basic steps in the overall instructional process:
Imparting the knowledge content.
Imparting the basic skills.
|Stage 1: Acquiring knowledge
|| Step 1: Imparting the knowledge content.
|Stage 2: Executing the actions
||Step 2: Imparting the basic skills
|Stage 3: Transfer
||Step 3: Developing proficiency.
|Stage 4: Automatization of the skill.
|Stage 5: Generalization of the skills
Information (explanation, demonstration, and guidance),
Practice (frequency, spacing, etc.),
Feedback (frequency, form, quality, etc.),
Transfer and generalization
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Romiszowski , A. (1999). The development of physical skills: Instruction in the psychomotor domain. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.). Instructional-design theories and models: Volume II A new paradigm of instructional theory . Mahwah , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.