D-Level Analyzer is an automatic syntactic complexity analyzer based on the revised Developmental Level scale (Rosenberg & Abbeduto 1987; Covington et al. 2006). This analyzer assigns each sentence in an input text to one of eight increasinly complex developmental levels, tallies the number of sentences at each level, and calculates the average level of the sentences. This software is an implementation of the system described in:
You might also be interested in the following papers, which used or discussed the D-Level Analyzer:
To use the analyzer, the user needs to first tag a raw text using a part-of-speech tagger that follows the Penn Treebank tagging scheme and then parse the text using model 2 of Collins' parser. The analyzer is implemented in python and runs on UNIX-like systems (Unix, LINUX, and Mac OS X) with emacs and python 2.5 or higher installed. The analyzer takes as input the output of Collins' parser (using model 2) and generates an output that summarizes the developmental levels of the sentences in the input file(s). The analyzer references the regularized version of NOMLEX (Macleod et al. 1998) for nominalization recognition, which should be installed in the same directory as the analyzer.
- Stevens, R. J., Lu, X., Baker, D. P., Ray, M. N., Eckert,
S. A., & Gamson, D. A. (2015). Assessing
the cognitive demands of elementary school reading curricula: An
analysis of reading text and comprehension tasks from 1910 to
2000. American Educational Research Journal, 52(3),
- Gamson, D. A., Lu, X., & Eckert, S. A. (2013). Challenging
the research base of the common core state standards: A historical
reanalysis of text complexity. Educational Researcher,
- Thorne, S. L., Fischer, I., & Lu, X. (2012).
The semiotic ecology and linguistic complexity of an online game
world. ReCall, 24(3), 279-301.
- Lu, X. (2008). Automatic
measurement of syntactic complexity using the revised developmental
level scale. In Proceedings of the 21st International Florida
Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference
(pp. 153-158). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press.
- Covington, M. A., He, C., Brown, C., Naçi, L. & Brown, J. (2006). How complex is that sentence? A proposed revision of the Rosenberg and Abbeduto D-Level scale. CASPR Research Report 2006-01. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia, Artificial Intelligence Center.
- Macleod, C., Grishman, R., Meyers, A., Barrett, L. & Reeves, R. (1998). NOMLEX: A lexicon of nominalizations. In Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of the European Association for Lexicography. Liege, Belgium.
- Rosenberg, S. & Abbeduto, L. (1987). Indicators of linguistic competence in the peer group conversational behavior of mildly retarded adults. Applied Psycholinguistics, 8(1), 19-32.