This model emphasizes the interdependencies of each step in the process, highlights the importance of the evaluation, and recognizes more environmental factors in an educational setting, i.e. the resources and the support (budget, facilities, time, equipment, personnel and materials).
Kemp proposed this model based on the following beliefs:
The characteristics of the model
From Kemp (1985): The instructional design process
In 1994, Kemp, Morrison and Ross modified Kemp's model (1985), adding two more components, i.e. planning and support service, and separating formative and summative into different levels of the model.
Kemp, J. E., Morrison, G. R., & Ross, S. V. (1994). Design effective
instruction, New York: Macmillan.