Kemp's Model

This model emphasizes the interdependencies of each step in the process, highlights the importance of the evaluation, and recognizes more environmental factors in an educational setting, i.e. the resources and the support (budget, facilities, time, equipment, personnel and materials).

Kemp proposed this model based on the following beliefs:

  • The design belief: ID is a continuous cycle with revision as an ongoing activity associated with all of the other elements.
  • The four essential elements of instructional technology are students, objectives (what to be learned), method (what procedures and resources will work best to reach desired learning levels), and evaluation (how we will know the desired learning occurs)

The characteristics of the model

  • A general systems view of development: all elements are interdependent
  • All the elements can be performed simultaneously
  • Developer can start anywhere
  • Learning needs, goals, priorities and constraints determine the instructional solutions.

From Kemp (1985): The instructional design process

In 1994, Kemp, Morrison and Ross modified Kemp's model (1985), adding two more components, i.e. planning and support service, and separating formative and summative into different levels of the model.

Kemp, J. E. (1985). The instructional design process. New York: Haper and Row.

Kemp, J. E., Morrison, G. R., & Ross, S. V. (1994). Design effective instruction, New York: Macmillan.