Dick and Carey's model (1996) is systematic in nature. The model is
a procedural system including ten major process components (nine basic
steps in an iterative cycle and a culminating evaluation of the effectiveness
of the instruction).
(Flow chart and table from Sherri
Braxton's site on Instructional Design Models)
The nine components in an iterative cycle include:
- Assess needs to identify instructional goal(s): to identify what
it is the learners are expected to be able to do at the end of the
- Conduct instructional analysis: to determine a step-by-step of what
learners are doing when they are performing the goal; to determine
what skills and knowledge are required
- Analyze learners and contexts: to identify learners' present skills,
preferences and attitude as well as the characteristics of the instructional
setting; the useful information about the target population includes
entry behaviors, prior knowledge of the topic area, attitudes toward
content and potential delivery systems, academic motivation, attitudes
toward the organization
- Write performance objectives: to specify what it is the learners
will be able to do with the statements of the skills to be learned,
the conditions, and the criteria
- Develop Assessment Instruments: to develop a criteria-referenced
assessment consistent with the performance objectives
- Develop instructional strategy: to develop strategies in pre-instructional
activities (motivation, objectives and entry behavior), presentation
of information (instructional sequence, information, examples), learner's
participation (practice and feedback), testing (pretest and posttest)
and follow-through activities(remediation, enrichment, memorization
- Develop and select instruction: to use the instructional strategies
to produce the instruction
- Design and conduct formative evaluation: to collect data that are
used to identify how to improve the instruction
- Revise Instruction: to use the data from the formative evaluation
to examine the validity of the instructional analysis, learner and
context analysis, performance objectives, assessment instruments,
instructional strategies, and instruction.
The final process is to design and conduct summative evaluation, which
is an evaluation of the value of the instruction.
The underlying approach and methods
The systems approach: Dick and Carey (1996) pointed out the
systematic characteristics of their model:
- Goal-directed: all the components in the system work together toward
a defined goal
- Interdependencies: all the components in the system depend on each
other for input and output.
- Feedback mechanism: the entire system uses feedback to determine
whether the goal is met.
- Self-regulating: The system will be modified until the desired goal
Needs Assessment: a study to determine the nature of an organizational
problem and how it can be resolved. The outcome of a needs assessment
is the description of problem, causes of the problem, and the solution.
- Needs assessment becomes an increasing important component of the
- Rossett (1982): Needs assessment, a front-end analysis, is a technique
to understand a performance problem before trying to solve it.
- Instruction may not be the only solution to the performance problem.
- Information gathering is important: the methods include interviews,
questionnaires, observations, documents, group discussions
Gagne's (1985) domains of learning
- The domains include psychomotor skills, intellectual skills, verbal
information, attitude and cognitive strategies
- Dick and Carey deliberately omitted cognitive strategies from the
text: the least understood part; these can be treated like intellectual
skills and taught as such.
Mager (1975) model for objectives: three major components: descriptions
of the skill or behavior, descriptions of the conditions that the behavior
is performed, and description of the criteria that will be used to evaluate
Resier and Gagne's (1983) Media Selection: it is necessary to
select a medium for a cluster of similar objectives in the same domain,
and attempt to mix compatible media for a various objectives. The factors
in media selections include
- The projected availability of various media
- The ability of the teacher and the students to manage the media
- The ability of the designer or an available expert to produce the
materials in a particular media format
- Flexibility, durability and convenience of the materials within
a specified medium
Keller's ARCS model (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction)
Comments from Gustasfon and Branch (1997) about Dick and Carey's (1996)
"The most widely adopted introductory text related to the ID process
is Dick and Carey (1996). Thus, their model is known almost anywhere
ID is taught. The popularity of the Dick and Carey model can be partially
explained by its very readable text and the authors' continually updating
the model to reflect emerging ID philosophy. They also accompany there
model with clear and simple examples of each of the steps and excerpts
from cases of its use to provide readers with a frame of reference.
Dick and Carey have made minor modifications to their ID model to reflect
growing interest in performance technology, context analysis, multilevel
evaluation models, and total quality management".
Dick, W., & Carey, L. (1996). The systematic design of instruction.
4th ed. New York, NY: Harper Collin
Gustafson, K. and Branch, R. (1997) Revisioning Models of Instructional
Development. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 45
Mager, R. M. (1975). Preparing instructional objectives. Palo
Alto, CA: Fearon Publishiners.
Reiser, R.A., & Gagne, C. R. M. (1983). Selecting media for
instruction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.