Fund Studies (1930's) - First research to determine how media impacts
peoples attitudes and beliefs. Four significant studies emerged.
Holaday & Stoddard (1933) investigated how adults and children
acquired knowledge after viewing films. They found that both adults
and children obtained considerable general information from movie
viewing, specifically in the areas of English, history and geography.
The results supported that movies could be used in the classroom for
Peterson & Thurstone (1933) investigated the attitudes of children
after exposure to movies that focused on nationality, race, prohibition,
war and capital punishment. Compared "heavy" viewers and
"light" viewers to determine the cumulative effect of the
media. They concluded that motion pictures had long lasting effects
on the social attitudes of children.
Shuttle & May (1933) also studied the cumulative affect of movies
on the attitudes of children. Their results challenged some of those
posed by Peterson & Thurstone, but they confirmed that movies
reinforced existing behavior patterns and types of attitudes among
children who frequently attended movies. They supported that learning
did occur when viewing films, but they also recognized that learning
from a mass medium could occur in different ways among different audiences.
Cressey (1934) studied the impact of film on learning in children
and youth, and concluded that film could be used as an informal learning
instrument, especially in the areas associated with social deviance.
He stated that film offered a broader appeal than traditional classrooms.
He also indicated, however. that a variety of factors including situational,
social background and personality could impact learning from film.
and Weaver - Mathematical Model of Communication - technical perspective
-a one-way linear model of the transmission of messages. Information
viewed as a mathematical constant or a fixed element of communication.
Information source transmitted messages into a signal, then the sender
fed the signal through a channel to the receiver, who changed the signal
into understandable content for the destination of the message. This
model indicates that there is a difference between information (bits
of message) and meaning (making sense of the information bits).
(1960's, 1970's) - Developed Social Learning Theory, which explains
how children develop personality and learn behaviors by observing models
in society that they perceive as desirable.. Using this theory as basis,
Bandura conducted studies of the effect of television on aggression
in children, and found television, or mediated role models, affect children's
personality the same as live role models - aggression increased after
view violent programming.
et. al. (1950's) - Psychological view - American Soldier Studies -used
film with new recruits to provide factual information about the war,
change attitudes toward war and motivate recruits to fight. Results
showed that the films has significant impact on knowledge of factual
material; had some effect on the recruits opinions and attitudes; and
no effect on motivating the recruits to fight.
(1953) - ABX Model of Social Psychology - basis of psychological view
of communication. Saw communication as a way in which people orient
to their environment and to each other. Base on the concept of balance
between one's attitudes and beliefs and those that are important to
an individual. If the balance is disturbed, communication is used to
& Osgood (1954) Model of Communication - psychological perspective
- Saw each person as an entire communicative system with both sending
and receiving abilities. Meanings of symbols in message (verbal and
nonverbal) were determined by the participants' experiences - so words
only had meaning if one's experience enabled them to interpret the words
used. Thus, in order for communication to occur effectively, both participants
need to have similar experiences.
Schranun, Lyle and Parker (1961) - psychological view - first to study
effects of television on children. Developed concept of incidental learning:
learning takes place whether or not the television program were intended
to be educational. Incidental learning is linked to a child's age, television
habits, and learning abilities.
and MacLean (1957) - psychological view - added to Newcomb's ABX model
of social psychology. Indicated that a specific event was the starting
point when communication was needed to restore balance. Placed mass
media organizations between the source and destination of messages.
Their model also formalized feedback loops in communication.
& Lazarsfeld (1955) - Two-Step Flow Model of Mass Communications
- Landmark study that examined results of 1940 Erie County, Ohio election.
Looked at 6-month panel survey of voting behavior and decision making.
Found that people who changed mind most often did after speaking to
others - opinion leaders - who obtained their information from the media.
Later studies on everyday issues produced similar results.
(1980's) - Developed a model where the amount of learning that took place
from a particular media was determined by three factors - perceived demand
characteristics of an activity, perceived self-efficacy for using that
medium, and amount of mental effort invested in processing the presentation.
Predicted that students perceive printed materials as difficult and would
invest more time in processing these materials, resulting in increased
learning. He also predicted that students would perceive media as easy
and make less effort to process the materials, resulting in decreased
learning. Later studies determined that context of the material also was
a variable in predicting learning, and that culture played a role in individual's
expectations of the media.