processes and prior knowledge intervene between the stimulus and the
response. This means that the response is not always predictable (thus
contradicting Behavioral theories)
occur between stimulus and response that affect our memory of incoming
information. These mechanisms include chunking and mental imagery. Chunking
is what occurs when information is collapsed into manageable grouping
or chunks, between the presentation of the stimulus and the resulting
response. Chunking occurs because of the limits of short-term memory,
which can only store up to 7 items. To remember more than seven individual
items, one must form groupings. Chunking is most efficient when the
items in the grouping have something in common. Interactive mental imagery
is when an individual forms a mental image of two items interacting
in order to remember a listing, etc. This type of mechanism works best
if the items can be related to each other or something in prior knowledge
in a meaningful way.
exists a circular relationship between learning, meaning and memory.
What is learned is affected by its meaningfulness, and the meaning is
determined by what is remembered, and the memory is affected by what
we learn. Basis for cognitive theories.
psychologists still use the experimental methodology developed by the
Behaviorists - they rely on observable, measurable behavior in their
Mental models and schema change through experience over time. It becomes
more easy to access and requires less conscious effort to use. It also
becomes internalized and automatic.
learning occurs through instruction. Expertise develops after instruction
and through maturity and experience. Mastery and Expertise are not the
Experts organize information differently from Novices - they chunk the
information in a way that leads them to consider patterns of information
when needed to solve problems - it is the chunking of information rather
than searching techniques that causes quicker, more effective responses.
to information processing models, memory consists of a sensory register,
a long term store and a short term store. Information is registered
by the senses then placed in the short term storage area where it will
decay after 15 seconds unless rehearsed in some manner. If rehearsed,
it will go into the long term storage area where it remain permanently.
Through additional studies on information processing, it was revealed
that through the process of sufficient rehearsal, one can automatize
an number of items into a single chunk. It was also revealed that one
does memorize text verbatim, but rather one memorizes an abstract representation
of the meaning of the text (schemata).