"We naturally associate democracy...with freedom of action, but freedom of action without freed capacity of thought behind it is only chaos." -- John Dewey

What knowledge base should an instructional designer have?

First we should define what the field is all about. From its historical development, instructional technology has evolved from its focus on audiovisual communication to its development as a field integrating four major disciplines: media in education, psychology of instruction, systems approaches to education, and performance technology (Schrock, 1995; Reiser, 2001). Such integration reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field.

Seels and Richey (1994) presented the following definition of instructional technology, i.e. "instructional technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management and evaluation of processes and resources for learning." The definition reveals its knowledge domains in design, development, utilization, management and evaluation. As a field and a profession, the foundations of instructional technology, i.e. the knowledge base that supports the practice of instructional technology, lie in the theories and research related to each domain involved in the practice of instructional design.