Ely (1990) referred conditions of changes to the factors in the environment
that affects the implementation in the change process. When the implementation
plan to launch out innovation is carefully crafted to satisfy all the perceived
attributes that facilitate the rate of adoption, what else can make the adoption
easier or impede the adoption? This is exactly the question that Ely's Conditions
of Changes intend to answer.
Ely (1999) listed eight conditions that should exist or be created in the environment
where in the innovation is implemented to facilitate its adoption:
- Dissatisfaction with the status quo: the precondition for
people to accept a change is that they perceive a needs to change the environment.
Perception of such needs usually is revealed in people's dissatisfaction of
the existing methods, products, or programs. Understanding of the cause of
the dissatisfaction and identifying who has dissatisfaction can help the change
agent to communicate the innovation to the adopters in a more effective way.
Ellisworth (2001) said that understanding sources and the levels of dissatisfaction
can help the change agent to position the innovation to be more compatible
with their 'felt needs' (in Rogers' term).
- Sufficient knowledge and skills: In order to make the implementation
succeed, "the people who will ultimately implement any innovation must
possess sufficient knowledge and skills to do the job." (Ely, 1995).
It is especially evident when the innovation involves in use of a certain
tool or a technique. Without enough training to use the tool or technique,
the innovation will die out soon.
- Availability of resources: A good recipe itself does not guarantee
the tasty results of cooking. There must be right ingredients and right cooking
utensils available for the cook to use. In the same logic, an innovation without
resources, such as money, tools and materials, to support its implementation,
will not be successful.
- Availability of time: The adoption of the innovation takes
time. As it is put by Ely, "the implementers must have time to learn,
adapt, integrate, and reflect on what they are doing." Their 'confirmation'
of the acceptance of the innovation does not necessarily bring forth the change.
It needs time for the people to understand the innovation and develop the
abilities to adapt the innovation.
- Reward or incentives: People need to be encouraged in their
performance of innovation or use of the innovation. Extrinsic or intrinsic
rewards can add some value of the innovation, and thus, promote its implementation.
- Participation: Participants in the implementation should be
encouraged to involve in decision-making. With the opportunities to communicate
their ideas and opinions, the participants can have sense of the ownership
of the innovation. Moreover, the communication among all parties can help
monitor the progress of the innovation.
- Commitment: Since the implementation take a great deal of
endeavors and time, the people who are involved in the implementation need
to make commitment to their efforts and time. There must be "firm and
visible evidence that there is endorsement and continuing support for implementation"
- Leadership: Unless to say, the leaders' expectations and
commitment have a great impacts on the process of implementation. Leadership
also include the availability of affective support thorough the process.
Ely, D. P. (1990). Conditions that facilitate the implementation of educational
technology innovations. Journal of Research on Computing in Education,
23 (2), 298-305.
Ely, D. P. (1999). New perspectives on the implementation of educational
Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation
Fullan's Educational Change
Ely's Conditions of Changes