have discovered bowling balls, pins and other equipment in an Egyptian
child's grave dating back to 5200 B.C. This makes historians belief that
Egyptians were playing a form of bowling centuries ago. The Dutch introduced
the sport to America in the 1600's it was called Dutch pins.
In America the game became very popular. But people
began to gamble on the sport, and for a while it was looked on as an evil
event. The state of Connecticut outlawed "bowling at nine pins," as it was
described. To get around that law, residents added an additional pin and
this was the beginning of the 10-pin game played today! By the mid 1900s,
the sport was once again an accepted form of family recreation.
What the Egyptians maybe didn't realize when they
originated the game of bowling was the motions and muscles used in the upper
extremities to accomplish the game. We will be analyzing the shoulder,
elbow, and wrist joints used in the motion of bowling.
The bowler's body posture would be standing erect, left foot slightly
forward, with body at a slight angle. The bowler's right hand is supporting
the bowling ball in wrist extension. The shoulder and elbow are in a flexed
position. The left hand is supporting some of the weight of the anterior
surface if the ball. (See picture labeled Starting Position)
The wind up swing is the first motion observered. The shoulder moves to
hyperextension. The prime movers of the shoulder in extension and
hyperextension are: posterior deltoid, latissimus dorsi, and the teres
major. The elbow moves to elbow extension. The triceps muscle is the prime
mover in this concentric motion. The wrist begins with the flexors in
isometric contraction, and then as the ball passes the midpoint of the
frontal plane of the bowler the wrist extension takes over the contraction.
The prime movers of wrist extension in this concentric isometric contraction
are: extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis brevis, an extensor
carpi radialis longus. The supinator muscle and the biceps brachii aid the
motion by supinating the forearm. (See picture labeled The Wind Up)
The swing is the second motion observered. The shoulder moves into flexion.
The prime movers of shoulder flexion are: anterior deltoid and pectorals
major - the clavicular portion. The elbow remains in extension. The triceps
muscle is the prime mover. The prime movers of wrist extension are: extensor
carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis brevis, an extensor carpi radialis
longus. The supinator muscle and the biceps brachii aid the motion by
supinating the forearm. After the ball crosses the frontal plane at the
bowler’s discretion the ball is released beginning the follow through
The follow through after the release of the bowling ball is the third motion
observed. The shoulder is flexed. The prime movers in this eccentric
contraction are the posterior deltoid, latissimus dorsi, and the teres
major. There is a few degrees of elbow flexion with a co-contraction of the
biceps brachii, and the triceps brachii. The wrist remains in neutral with
isometric contractions of the flexors. (See picture labeled Follow Through)
We analyzed the swing movement in bowling. This involved only the shoulder
and forearm. This motion is also coordinated with the lower extremity
motion. When performing this activity it is not likely for you to think
about the motion and muscles involved.
Duesterhause Minor, Mary Alice and Lippert, S. Lynn. Kinesiology Flashcards.
J. Helen and Montgomery, Jacqueline. Muscle Testing. Philadelphia:
W.B. Saunders Co., 2002
S. Lynn. Clinical Kinesiology for Physical Therapist Assistants.
Philadelphia: F.A. Davis, 2000