NOTE: Here is a link to some materials on scale and test construction. For info ... Test Construction Course
What I have provided here is a collection, to which I will add, of attitudinal type scales that I or my students have worked on over the years. In some cases, the scales have been the products of a scale construction class and, in that light, are NOT tried and true and tested. I take NO responsibility for what these measure ... but I am sure you can see the gist of where we were going with the items.
In other cases, the scales are tried and true and tested and PUBLISHED ... and I provide a reference to it. To save space, I have eliminated the response scale but, in all cases, it would be of the variety of Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree.
P = Published
To make it easier, you can jump to several points in the list.
Roberts and Toombs (1992). A scale to assess perceptions of cheating in examination-related situations. The Review of Higher Education, 15(2), pp 179-190.
1. A student's calculator has some formulas and answers attached to the bottom which she uses to work out some test problems. 2. In a panic, a student copies some exam answers from another student. 3. A student accepts a copy of an upcoming exam to study from knowing that other students also have copies. 4. Two students who are whispering about some test items during an exam are warned about it by the instructor but they continue to whisper in spite of the warning. 5. In a crowded testing room, students exchange written notes about the test. 6. A student visits an instructor's office prior to a test and, while the instructor steps out, sees a copy of the test on the desk. Several items are copied down before the teacher returns. 7. An instructor asks students to turn in their test questions before leaving the testing room. One student removes his copy anyway. 8. During a test, a student copies several answers from the person beside him. 9. A student takes a look at his textbook during a closed book test. 10. Two students devise and use a method of communicating answers to each other during exams. 11. A student changes some answers on a self-graded exam so that her score looks higher than it really was. 12. A student knowingly lets a friend copy test answers from his answer sheet. 13. In a course, a student passes along confidential test items to a friend who will be taking the course next semester. 14. A student conceals information and uses it to answer questions on an exam. 15. A student deliberately misses a test and schedules a make-up exam. Before taking the make-up, the student studies a copy of the old test, something the instructor did not allow. 16. A student pays a classmate to sit in an adjacent seat and pass along answers to the test. 17. A student steals a test as a prank but does not use the test for her own benefit. However, her friends use the information and do better on the test. 18. A professor who does not return copies of the tests allows students to retake one exam. A student manages to obtain a copy of the test on which he received his lowest score, and studies it before taking the retest. 19. A student pays someone to complete her answer sheet and then turns it in to the instructor with her own name on it. 20. Noticing answer sheets face up on the professor's desk during a test, a student goes up to ask a question and purposely notes other students' answers. 21. Seeing the professor's office open and no one around, a student takes a copy of the test from the professor's desk. 22. A student pays to obtain old tests the professor does not want distributed. Because she studies from the tests, her grade on the test is better. 23. During a test, a student asks the professor questions to distract him so a friend can copy answers from another student. 24. When the instructor leaves the testing room for a few minutes, several students exchange information about the test. 25. In a large testing session with multiple forms of the test, a student arranges the tests being passed out so his neighbor will have the same form of the test. The student then copies a few answers from his neighbor. 26. During a test, a student sits near the door and has a friend stand outside and whisper information about the test so that the instructor cannot hear. 27. A student picks up and returns a dropped answer sheet during an exam. While handing it back to its owner, he notes several answers and, when rethinking his own work, changes some answers based on what he saw. 28. During a test, two friends sit next to one another and purposely drop and exchange their answer sheets in order to compare answers. 29. A student has someone else complete his take-home exam and then turns it in as his own work. 30. A student is given essay questions, several of which will appear on a test. He writes out the answers and brings them to the test. During the test, he merely transcribes the answers into his blue book.
1. Statistics will be useful to me in my profession when I evaluate other people. 2. It takes me a long time to understand a statistical concept. 3. I get a great deal of satisfaction out of solving a statistics problem. 4. Statistics will be useful to me to test the superiority of one method over another. 5. I normally am able to solve statistics problems without too much difficulty. 6. I might use statistics at my job but wouldn't like doing it. 7. Statistics will be useful to me in evaluating the effectiveness of my professional performance. 8. I make a lot of errors when I calculate statistics problems. 9. Even before I begin a new statistics topic, I feel relatively confident that I can master it. 10. Statistics will be useful to me when I describe my professional activities to other people. 11. I am able to figure out most of the equations I need to solve a statistics problem. 12. I would like to study advanced statistics. 13. Statistics will be a useful tool that I can use to improve the reliability and validity of measures that I have developed. 14. There are so many statistical concepts to learn that I get confused. 15. The average professional would find statistics a boring subject. 16. Statistics will be a useful way to help me improve the quality of my professional performance. 17. I must constantly review statistics or I forget it. AND A PERSONAL FAVORITE OF MINE! 18. The thought of taking another statistics course makes me sick. 19. Statistics is so useful that it should be a required part of my profession's skills. 20. I find statistics to be very logical and clear. 21. Given the opportunity, I would take another statistics course even though it were not required. 22. When I solve a statistics problem, I am often not sure how to interpret the results. 23. Statistics won't be useful to me in my profession because it takes too much time to use. 24. When I solve a statistics problem, I am often unsure if I have a correct or nearly correct answer. 25. It is unreasonable to expect the average professional to master and apply statistics. 26. You should be good at math before attempting statistics. 27. Statistics may be useful to someone who plans to pursue a career in research, but not very useful to the average professional. 28. Statistics is the most difficult course I have taken. 29. The pace of a statistics course is so fast that it is impossible for the average student to learn the subject matter thoroughly. 30. Homework in statistics is harder than homework in non-math subjects. 31. Statistics is too theoretical to be of much practical use to the average professional. 32. I find it easy to explain a statistics topic to someone else. 33. An average student can expect a good grade in statistics if he/she studies.
1. I would like to live in a foreign country for awhile. 2. Being able to speak a foreign language will be helpful in keeping or finding a job. 3. I would like to be able to read newspaper or magazine articles written in other parts of the world (in the original language). 4. In it NOT necessary to learn a foreign language since most educated people in foreign countries speak English. 5. Gaining an appreciation of other cultures is one benefit of learning another language. 6. Knowing a foreign language will help me to communicate better with people in general. 7. Learning another language will be difficult for me. 8. Learning a new language is worth the effort. 9. I do not plan to take any foreign language courses beyond what is necessary for graduation. 10. Foreign language study improves my understanding of the English language. 11. Acquiring a second language broadens my general education -- makes me a well rounded person. 12. Knowing a foreign language will not be useful to me after college. 13. I would like to be able to enjoy foreign films in the original language. 14. Earning an "A" (or 4.0) in this language course is not that important to me. 15. My career may occasionally require me to speak in a foreign language. 16. Learning a foreign language will be helpful since I plan to visit other countries in the future. 17. Understanding a foreign language broadens one's understanding of world affairs. 18. Considering my other commitments (work, social, and athletic activities, study time for other classes), this language class will require too much study time. 19. I would like to have had some of the basics of a foreign language taught to me in elementary school. 20. Foreign language study is an important part of getting a college education. 21. I will not mind spending the proper amount of time studying for this language class. 22. I should be able to understand a foreign language fairly well at the completion of my foreign language course.
1. The world would be better off if calculators had never been invented. 2. Many times I do not trust the answer the calculator gives me because it does not make sense to me. 3. My calculator confuses me more often than it helps me. 4. I am never quite sure of my answer when I use a calculator. 5. Calculators will be a great advance in the teaching of mathematics and statistics. 6. I think the calculator was a more important invention than the typewriter. 7. I (plan to) use my calculator to balance my checkbook. 8. I want my child to learn math using a calculator. 9. Calculators should only be used after a person has learned math. Learners should not have access to them during learning ... (this turned out to be a very poor item). 10. I think learning statistics is difficult enough without trying to learn how to use a calculator too. 11. I would learn statistics better if I did not have to use a calculator. 12. I trust my hand calculations more than those I get when I use a calculator. 13. Children will learn math better than we did because they will use calculators throughout their education. 14. I would encourage my parents to use calculators. 15. It is too difficult to use calculators. 16. I think instructors in statistics classes should let their students use calculators. 17. I wish I could have used a calculator in high school. 18. Everyone should know how to use a calculator. 19. If I had a friend taking a statistics course, I would encourage them to use a calculator. 20. I would consider buying a calculator for someone as a present.
1. Faculty should be paid according to what are the normal salaries at other institutions for different disciplines (ie, like engineering, or business, or education). 2. University faculty should be compensated for the type of work that they do (ie, they teach and do research) and not according to the discipline they belong to. 3. Assume that two faculty who are at the Associate Professor level teach about two courses per semester, do about the same amount/quality of research, and advise about the same number of doctoral students. If one is in Engineering and the other is in Liberal Arts, it is fair to pay them considerably different salaries. 4. Primarily, market forces (ie, discipline driven) should determine the salaries of faculty. 5. One Associate Professor teaches a heavy load (very well) but, does little research. Another Associate Professor in the same department does a lot of research (very well) but does little teaching. Both faculty should be compensated with approximately the same salary. 6. Professor X has been working at the university for 25 years, coming as an Assistant Professor, being relatively productive, and moving through the ranks to the rank of Full Professor. Currently, the department is searching for another professor, perhaps at the beginning Associate Professor level, who would be a second addition to complement the work done by Professor X (assume that the department has grown and more sections of courses need to be offered). The department is successful in finding a person but has to offer that new person a higher salary than Professor X. This seems fair. 7. Faculty, regardless of discipline, who have been at an institution for approximately the same length of time, and have been approximately equally productive, and who have achieved the same rank (say Full Professor with 4 years in rank) ... should be earning approximately the same annual salary. 8. A survey was done that showed that Associate Professors in Engineering made about 35% more, on average at the top 25 schools, than Associate Professors in Liberal Arts (with similar records of productivity) at these same top 25 schools. These data seem adequate reason and argument for continuing this practice. 9. Let's say that quality of a group of universities is categorized into 3 tiers: Level 1 (Best) to level 3 (Weakest). Also assume that in all of these institutions, there are programs in education, business, and engineering, and liberal arts, etc. There should be more variation (ie, differences) in salaries across the different levels of institutions than across the disciplines WITHIN the institutions. 10. Assume that in Institution Y ... the typical Associate Professor of English makes 40% less than the typical Associate Professor of Business. Because of this, it is reasonable for the Institution to expect that the Associate Professor of Business to do approximately 40% more work. 11. A university is part of the larger community, where salaries vary according to the professions in which people work. Therefore, similar salary variation should exist across disciplines within the university. 12. The role of any university/college should be to produce well trained professionals to fill the job needs of society. In society, some professionals (doctors, lawyers, engineers) earn higher salaries than others (school teachers, social workers, writers for local newspapers). Because of this, salaries of faculty should reflect these differences too. 13. Assume that two faculty members are similar in terms of quality of work. Any difference In their general levels of salary should primarily be based on their different years of experience. 14. The salaries of university professors should be based primarily on the number of years of work experience within the institution (ie, one associate professor who has been at that rank at University X should be paid more than another associate professor who has only been in that rank for 5 years at that institution). 15. Salaries for different levels of professorship (Assistant, Associate, etc.) should follow the same general pay scale across the different departments (engineering, business, liberal arts, etc.) within the same institution. 16. Some colleges have a salary scale where the years of experience and the degree you have (masters, doctorate) are the major factors in levels of compensation no matter what subject you teach or department you work in. This seems a reasonable way to determine faculty pay. 17. One would expect that the morale of faculty with respect to their pay would be similar in institutions where there is a relatively fixed pay schedule compared to other institutions where faculty are paid much more in some disciplines than others. 18. Salaries of faculty should be based solely on the discussions between the faculty member and the department head or dean. 19. Above and beyond some base salary that is common to all faculty in all disciplines based on rank and years in rank ... differences in salary between those at the same rank should primarily be determined by productivity differences (ie, better quality of teaching .. more funded research, etc.). 20. The Dean should have the authority to offer whatever salary he/she must in order to get a good faculty candidate to commit to come to that institution, independent of what other faculty in his/her college earn.
1. Sex education should be the exclusive responsibility of the parents. 2. Schools should be able to distribute contraceptives to students. 3. Since some kids are likely to experiment with sex, it is a good idea to have sex education taught in the public schools. 4. It is morally wrong for the public schools to get involved with teaching material about sex. 5. Local school districts should develop and implement a sex education program in the public schools. 6. Allowing sex education to be taught in the public schools would lead to an increase in teenage pregnancy. 7. The thought of public schools distributing information about birth control is repulsive to me. 8. Sex education should not be taught in the public schools since it will lead to kids experimenting with sex earlier than they might otherwise. 9. Lack of resources should not be a factor in whether sex education is taught in the public schools. If necessary, reallocation of resources should be made to make sure that sex education is taught in the public schools. 10. I am against having public schools teach sex education because it is impossible to know exactly when is the most appropriate time for school kids to be exposed to such material. 11. Parents are much better at providing information to their children about sex education than are teachers in the public schools. 12. While I don't think that contraceptions should be distributed in the public schools, I do feel that schools should discuss contraceptive methods in the health education classes. 13. Even in schools that do not have a formal sex education program, health education teachers who are asked by students about sex education should be able to answer the students' questions. 14. Since school age kids do sometimes get involved in experimenting with sex, it is the role of the schools to help students better understand matters related to sex. 15. Junior high schools should have 1 or more sex education courses and require that all students take at least one of the courses. 16. Sex education should be discussed in public schools as long as no graphic material is presented in during these discussions. 17. While the public schools might have some program of sex education, it is the ultimate responsibility and right of parents to decide if they want their children to participate in such programs. 18. No financial resources (teachers, space, etc.) should be allocated in the public schools and put towards providing a sex education program. 19. Because most teachers are parents too, it would be better to leave sex education to parents rather than formally have sex education in the schools. 20. Local citizens within a school district should be able to vote on the issue of allowing sex education in the public schools and, if they vote no, then the public schools should not have a sex education program.
1. The time and effort needed to implement Post Tenure Rewiew is NOT worth the benefits resulting from Post Tenure Review. 2. Preparation for Post Tenure Review will distract people from their daily responsibilities. 3. Putting together documentation for Post Tenure Review will be a pain. 4. The process of implementing Post Tenure Review will be simple. 5. The Post Tenure Review process will NOT produce unreasonable amounts of additional paperwork. 6. It will be easy to adapt the current tenure review process to accomodate Post Tenure Review procedures. 7. Deans should chair Post Tenure Review committees. 8. Deadwood in the academic ranks will be more easily eliminated if we had Post Tenure Reviews. 9. Post Tenure Review will increase the colleagiality in academic departments. 10. The stress from doing Post Tenure Review will decrease the quality of one's teaching. 11. The quality of the research by academics will be negatively affected be a system of Post Tenure Review. 12. Adoption of a Post Tenure Reviw procedure will eventually lead to the end of tenure. 13. Post Tenure Review will cause stress amongst the faculty. 14. Faculty who are more confident about themselves will tend to gravitate to schools where there is a Post Tenure Review process in place. 15. I get queasy even thinking about the possibility of having to work in a system where there is Post Tenure Review. 16. The documentation required for Post Tenure Review will make it easier to reward productive faculty members. 17. Time spent on creating Post Tenure Review documentation could be better spent on something else. 18. I feel that I will be increasing my chances for job security if I undergo a post tenure review. 19. It is not the goal of Post Tenure Review to dismantle the system of tenure. 20. Post Tenure Review is but one additional way to gradually eliminate the tenure system. 21. More full professors who have tenure will be dismissed under a Post Tenure Review system. 22. With Post Tenure Review, I don't believe that I will be under any greater risk of being terminated than under the current system of tenure. 23. The goal of implementing a Post Tenure Review system is to be able to more easily get rid of ineffective faculty. 24. I am in favor of a Post Tenure Review system if it solidifies the job security of good faculty and reduces the job security of poor faculty. 25. Post Tenure Review will not impact on how faculty do their work.
ATTITUDES ABOUT THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW) Directions: Look at each statement below and then respond to each based on how you feel. Use the response scale that follows. If you have absolutely NO opinion about an item, please mark the NA category. SD = STRONGLY DISagree with the statement D = DISagree with the statement more than I agree with it A = Agree with the statement more than I disagree with it SA = STRONGLY Agree with the statement1. I would spend all day on the WWW if i could. 2. I avoid using the WWW whenever possible. 3. I would prefer to do research for high school or college papers using the WWW. 4. Generally, I would rather use the WWW to find information than use some other method. 1. I like to do WWW work. 2. Using the WWW is interesting to me. 3. The WWW is beneficial for kids 4. The time spent surfing the WWW could be used much more productively. 5. The WWW is the best thing to have come along in a long long time. 6. I would prefer surfing the web to writing a letter to a friend. 7. Far too many people have been addicted to the WWW. 8. More harm than benefit is done by letting students spend time on the WWW. 9. Kids in school should be shown early on how to use the WWW. 10. In order to improve society, the educational system must embrace the use of the WWW. 11. No person should be allowed to graduate from high school without being WWW literate. 12. There is far too much misinformation for the WWW to be of use to me. 13. I like to use the WWW as a source for information. 14. The WWW is highly over-rated. 15. The WWW is a powerful research tool. 16. Children should be encouraged to use the WWW. 17. Using the WWW is a waste of time. 18. Too much using the WWW will turn people into desk potatoes. 19. When doing research for term papers, I prefer to use books and journals rather than the WWW. 24. I think the WWW has far too many ads/commercials that make my using it not a good use of my time. 25. The world would have been better off if the WWW had never been invented.
Note: This scale was jointly developed by Shawn Dinnocenti, Catherine Weiss, Loreta Ulmer and Dennis Roberts. Appropriate reference to this would be appreciated.
ATTITUDES ABOUT DISTANCE EDUCATION Directions: Distance education generally refers to systems of taking courses in high school or college away from school .... not being a resident student and taking a class on campus. Sometimes these are called Independent Learning courses or Correspondence Courses. Given that, look at each statement below and then indicate how you feel about the item using the scale below. If you have absolutely NO opinion on an item, please mark the NA category. SD = STRONGLY DISagree with the statement D = DISagree with the statement more than I agree with it A = Agree with the statement more than I disagree with it SA = STRONGLY Agree with the statement1. I like the way distance education allows me to balance school with my other responsibilities. 1. I feel distance education courses are not structured well enough to be instructionally effective. 3. I would prefer to take a course via a distance education approach. 4. Distance education is not as good as regular classroom instruction. 5. I like distance education courses. 6. I think distance education is an inferior way to take a course for college credit. 7. I think taking a distance education course is an excellent alternative to a class based course. 7. Distance education courses are usually better than their counterpart class based courses. 7. Even if all the courses that are required in a student's program were available via distance education, a student should only be allowed to take a small fraction of the requirements that way. 7. Students who take courses via the distance education method usually receive a poorer quality course compared to regular class instruction. 7. Regular class instruction is the best method of delivering courses in high school and in college. 7. While distance education might work for courses that are electives, students should not be able to use distance education to fulfill required courses in a program. 7. More faculty should be encouraged to develop distance education courses. 14. I would take all my program courses using distance education if I could. 15. I like the way distance education classes allow me to fulfill my college requirements by being able to take courses from other colleges. 15. If I had to take a distance education course to complete my requirements, I would change my major. 15. I think that distance education courses should be offered only for professional development and not to students who need to learn new material. 15. When given the choice, I would choose a traditional instructional delivery method over distance education. 15. I think that distance education is a good alternative to classroom study when it is the only way to take a course. 16. Distance education allows students to see and experience places and people that they may not otherwise have the opportunity to do. 17. I prefer the interactive classroom discussion to the distance education method of communications. 18. I would feel lonely taking a distance education course. 19. I prefer to take a course under a structured arrangement like classroom based instruction. 20. I like the way that distance education allows me to work at my own pace. 21. I feel that distance education courses fit my schedule better than traditional classroom based instruction.
Note: This scale was jointly developed by Shawn Dinnocenti, Catherine Weiss, Loreta Ulmer and Dennis Roberts. Appropriate reference to this would be appreciated.
Any comments? Please send me a note ... Dennis Roberts