Lect. #17 Early 20th Century Tibet

I. Introduction
              1. Independent Tibet?
                     - subordinate
                           
Tibet-Dogra War (1841)
                            Tibet-Nepal War (1857)
                            Nyarong War (1862-1865)
                     - ch
yn (chyey + yndag)

II. Britain & Tibet
       A. British Invasion (1903-1904)
              1. Younghusband and the Lhasa Convention (September 7, 1904)
                     - Dalai Lama flees to Urga

                     - Lhasa Convention
                            recognize Sikkim
                            open trade with India
                            establish trade ports
                            renounce all relations with foreign countries

                2. British (London) repudiate expedition and convention
                     - Anglo-Chinese Convention 1906
                3. Chinese & Kham
                     - Zhao Erfeng
                4. Chinese in Lhasa
                     - Ambans
                           
  Army, roads, and sinicization
                              1907 - Chinese school
                              1908 Military college
 
              5. Dalai Lama
                     - New course of action:  China & Great Britain
                           
  Beijing (September 28, 1908)
                              Lhasa (December 25, 1909)
                              Zhao Erfeng (February 12, 1910)
                              Darjeeling, India
                     - Chinese Revolution
                           
  October 11, 1911
 
              6. January 1913
                     - Dalai Lama enters Lhasa
                     - Issues proclamation

III. Forging a New Tibet
       A. New China, New Problems
               1. New assault on Kham (1912)
               2. Simla Talks (1913)
                     - Widening gap:
map
                     - Simla Position:  symbolic subordination, extensive autonomy, watchful eye of Great Britain
               3. Simla Convention (1914)
                     - Outer Tibet:  effective autonomy, nominal suzerainty
                     - Inner Tibet: effective suzerainty, nominal religious autonomy
                     - No Chinese troops or officials in outer Tibet (except amban)
                     - China NOT a foreign country (vis-a-vis Tibet)
               4. Renewed assault on Kham (1916)
                     - British rifles

IV. A Lost Opportunity:  1920s Tibet
       A. 13th Dalai Lama's Modernization Campaign
               1. Military key necessity to defend Tibet
                     - Military needs money
                     - Revenue Investigation Office
                           
  new tax on all religious and aristocratic estates
               2. Three factions:  Dalai Lama, Military, Aristocrats
               3. Paralysis:  each needs the other, each seeks to undermine the other
               4. December 12, 1933