Lect. # 8 Amdo and Kham

I. Introduction
 
    A. Amdo
                 - Kokonor Lake (Tso Ngonpo)
                     + Nomadic pastoralists
                     + agriculturalists
                     + ethnic diversity (Tibetan/Mongolian/Hui/Han/Tu)
                 - Towns
                     + Xining
                     + Gompa (monasteries) [map]
                           ~ Kumbum
                           ~ Labrang
                 - Ethnic contact zone
                           ~ Chinese
                              = Han
                              = Hui
                           ~ Muslim
                              = Salar
                              = Hui
                           ~ Tibetan
                           ~ Mongolian
                              = Mongols
                              = Tu


     B. Kham

                - SE Tibet [map]
                     + 6 Gang (pastures) and 4 Rivers
                           ~ Salween (Ngül)
                           ~ Mekong (Dza)
                           ~ Yangtze (Dri)

                           ~ Yalung (Nya)

                - Trade
                     + Dartsendo (Kangding)
                           ~ Tea
                     + Jyekundo (Jiegu)

                     + Chamdo

II. Valley of the Heroes
    A. Background
        1. Documentary
              a. Director: Khashem Gyal
                 - 2013: Qinghai Minzu University (BA) - Tibetan Languages and Literature
                 - 2014: Amilolo Films


         2. Hualong County [map]

              a. Qinghai Province
              b. Hui (Muslim) Autonomous County
                 - approx. 200,000 people (2010 census)
                 - Can you be Muslim (Hui) and Tibetan?
                     + Zang-Hui ()
                     + Tibetan-speaking Muslims
                     + Tibetan Muslims
                     + Converted Tibetans or Assimilated Muslims?
                     +Prejudiced Views Towards the 'Tibetan Hui' of Hualong County
                 - Politics of Language
                     + Chinese
                     + Tibetan
                     + Muslim?
                     + 30% Tibetans cannot speak Tibetan

         3. History
              a. Ma Laichi (1681-1766)
                 - Khufiyya (Sufi Order - Huasi menhuan)
                 - Arrival of Islam to Tibetan Area
                 - Conversion (of Tibetan indigenous) or Assimilation (of Muslim outsiders)?

              b. mid-19th century rebellions (1861-1874)
                 - Hui and Salar
              c. Republican period (1912-1949)
                 - Warlords
                 - Ma Bufang