Characterization and Properties of

Structured Waters

“Materials Day” at the Materials Research Institute

Penn State University

15 April 2008

Manju Lata Rao, Tania M. Slawecki, M. Richard Hoover, Prof. Rustum Roy

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Introduction and Overview:

Ultradilute and energetically imprinted waters have been observed to have therapeutic, corrosive or combustible properties although chemically they remain H2O.  H. E. Stanley (Boston U.) cites 63 anomalous properties of water that likely correlate with structures and phases of water.  Martin Chaplin (U. of London) proposes theoretical models of water clusters: how they arise and can persist, while Rustum Roy proposes a nanoheterogeneous model for the structure of water. Empirically and theoretically, water is understood to possess unusual properties that correlate with its underlying structure rather than its chemistry.









In our work, an Inphotonics Raman Spectrometer (Model RS 2000-3B-785 with 785 nm laser) with liquid immersion probe is utilized as the primary tool with which to examine the structure of water in these preliminary investigations.  A very careful protocol has been developed to ensure spectral anomalies do not arise from instrumentation, sample holders or sampling methodology.  Incident laser intensity has been optimized and 20 second data acquisition scans are used.  There is minimal localized heating of the bulk water sample from the instrument’s laser.  Instrument performance is gauged by the spectrum of a fresh deionized water sample prior to all experiments.  The results below indicate strong structuring of water that persists not for mere picoseconds, but for hours, weeks or longer.  Reproducibility has been established for some while for others the work is in progress.   Others methods (ICP, DSC (freezing point), UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD, TEM, DTA, TGA, SEM) have complimented some of the work profiled below.


Below is a photo of a typical probe-in-water setup and the resulting standard Raman spectrum for water which exhibits the standard double-peaked primary –OH stretch band and the much smaller –OH bending mode peak and even smaller and broader, the –OH bending and rotation mode as labeled on the graph.  Vertical scaling of the graph is arbitrary since it can depend on the intensity of the incident laser light as well as the sample scattering.




















Five sample “waters” are presented: silver colloids, energetically imprinted water, a homeopathic remedy, Sedlmayr microwave-distilled water, and a “combustible” water as per the John Kanzius discovery of being able to “burn saltwater”.  These five samples provide a sense of the complexity of water and shed light on its potential uses in new contexts.


1. Colloidal Silvers

American Biotech Labs provided us with their reverse-osmosis purified start water and four silver colloid preparations that they manufacture: 10 ppm, 22 ppm, 32 ppm and 201 ppm silver in water.  Prior analyses we conducted verified the accuracy of their reported ppms.  Biological studies reveal these ultradilute silver solutions act as strong disinfectants or as potent antibiotics.  With so little silver present, how is this possible?


Left: Samples were run in dual-beam mode relative to an empty quartz cuvette in a Cary 100 UV-Vis spectrometer.   Strong UV absorption is evident the higher the ppm of silver in solution.  Silver normally absorbs well above  400 nm, yet strong absorption occurs here in the 200-240 nm range and remains uncharacteristically  flat up to 800 nm.


Below: Raman spectra indicate clear structural differences between the different silver colloids.  These results are reproducible and consistent between sample batches, providing a structural identity of each silver solution that may be linked to its antimicrobial properties.


































2. Energetically Imprinted Waters

Dr. Yury Kron produces a line of energetically imprinted “Vital Force” waters via a proprietary technology.  In veterinary studies, his solutions have had strong, positive healing effects on animals, suggesting that, since placebo responses are less likely in animals, his formulations are responsible for the observed results.  We obtained and validated that his samples are chemically identical within reason, so chemical differences could not be responsible for the therapeutic effects reported. 


Left: Raman spectra of chemically identical spring waters, three of which were energetically imprinted several weeks prior by Dr. Kron. Traces are reproducible; all samples were at room temperature.  The different structures observed had survived being shipped to Penn State from Oregon.  This data indicate strong differences in the vibrational structures of these waters.
























Discussion: These spectra are a small sample of many obtained on Dr. Kron’s imprinted waters.  While further studies are required to validate long-term reproducibility with different sample batches, these preliminary data suggest that Kron’s device structurally alters water in distinct ways that confer different therapeutic effects when ingested.



3. Homeopathic Remedies

For those unfamiliar with homeopathy: it was founded by Samuel Hahnemann in the 1800’s and became the dominant form of medicine for half a century as it was much more benign in its approach to healing.  Hahnemann is regarded as the father of modern pharmacology and was the first to test remedies on healthy (as well as sick) people, and on men, women and children as unique groups requiring different treatment dosages.  At the time, many toxic substances were being employed by the medical establishment to cure the sick.  Hahnemann learned that these substances would make a healthy person quite sick, so it did not make sense to him to make a sick person more sick.  Homeopathy treats “like with like”: substances that elicited similar symptoms to those a person was experiencing were administered in ultradilute solutions to very gently tax the immune system to respond in the same way – to gently enhance the immune response to the disease without overtaxing the body.  What made no sense, however, was that, through experimentation, Hahnemann discovered that the more dilute the solution, the more potent it appeared to be in its effect on healing the body.  A nomenclature was developed to quantify the potency as a function of the number of times the sample was diluted and then succussed (shaken) a thousand times.  It isn’t long before the dilution ensure that the probability of finding even one molecule of the original substance introduced to the liquid base is essentially zero.  The base solution is usually water or a water-ethanol mix.  While a great deal of high-quality double-blind studies validates the efficacy of homeopathic remedies today, it remains controversial because “it has nothing in it!”  How could it possibly work?


Our initial hypothesis was that the process of succussion might create nanobubbles that persist or assist in generating unique water structures that have real effects on the body.  The following example is work in progress.


Six homeopathic (ultradilute, succussed) samples prepared in a pure water base were sent to us from M. Sue Benford.  One set of three were labelled with their potencies (6x, 30x and CM); the second set of three were labelled 1, 2, 3.  From a chemical standpoint, all three are nothing more than pure water.  From a chemical standpoint, all six samples should be identical and should look like pure water.
























































4. Sedlmayr Microwave-Distilled Water

Inventor Steve Sedlmayr was tired of his wife’s water distillation units breaking.  Frustrated with their poor design, he decided to insert a 2.54 GHz microwave antenna directly into a water distillation vessel.  To his surprise, multiple distillations of the same water resulted in unusually corrosive and/or healing properties of this water: those drinking his microwave-distilled waters began to report surprising healing effects, but he found he could not store the water in plastic bottles and, in fact, even the plastic tubing he was using in his condenser unit appeared to get eaten away by this water.  Yet, it was just… water!  How could this be?



Above: Sedlmayr distilleries at Penn State’s MRL building; Right: an interior view of the vessel and antenna (magnetron)





Left: Raman spectra of initially identical water samples after being distilled in one of six differently sized, shaped or coated vessels.  Samples were sent via air mail from Sedlmayr in Arizona.  Room temperature Raman spectra measurements were acquired approximately 1 week after distillation: clearly, changes persist.
































5. Kanzius Saltwater Combustion

John Kanzius was seeking a cure for cancer by using a radio frequency (RF) field to heat nanoparticles that could be tailored to selectively attach to cancerous cells in the body.  When someone asked him if the machine he invented could be used to desalinate water, he put some saltwater in the field and inadvertently bumped the test-tube.  When it sparked, they put a match to it and discovered that it would sustain a flame as long as the RF field was on.  This discovery is non-trivial to understand: With no inserted electrodes, water seems to electrolyze: a 10-6 eV RF photon apparently weakens or breaks the 5 eV OH-bond.  How?






























































We gratefully acknowledge support for parts of this work from a seed grant from the Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences and the Materials Research Institute, and from private donations and Friends of Health (501c-3).