MASSINA AND THE EAST

Along the middle Niger lie broad flat pasture-lands, and it was into this area that the Fulbe arrived in the time of Sonni Ali Ber, and there they have settled and remained. The land is highly suitable for cattle-grazing, and the pastoral traditions remain strong among the Fulbe of the region. In the early 19th century an Islamic state was established, the Dina of Massina, whose capital was Hamdallaye, and in 1818 the battle of Noukouma assured the independence of the Fulbe from the Bamana kings of Segou. But Islam also brought conflict to the Fulbe, and some fractions, led by Gueladio son of Hammadi Pate (the Red), moved east to a region further down the Niger, in present-day Burkina Faso and Niger. These 'emigrants,' as they are called, share their epic traditions with the Fulbe of Massina and Kounari, and thanks to the work of Gilbert Vieillard (and Eldridge Mohammedou, who has edited Vieillard's collection) we have a corpus of early (ca. 1928) texts to compare with modern versions. Leo Frobenius also collected a number of Fulfulde texts at the start of the century, but it is unclear whether his informants were really Fulbe or possibly Bamana. Certainly the two groups have interacted and share much of the epic tradition.

The Fulbe are also to be found further south and east from these areas, in northern Nigeria and Cameroon, but there they seem not to practice epic singing. Instead, they have settled in to the role of Islamic conquerors over other populations (in Nigeria, principally the Hausa).
Performer Title

Bibliographic Reference

Languages Date
Gouro Ahmadou Hambodedio et Fatumata Ham-sire

Vieillard/Mohammedou 53 ff.

Fulfulde

bilingual

ca. 1927
Hambodedio et Hamma Alla Seyni

Vieillard/Mohammedou pp. 65 ff.

Fulfulde

bilingual

ca. 1927
Silamaka Yero et Pulloru

Vieillard/Mohammedou 88 ff.;

Seydou 1972 242-261

Fulfulde

bilingual

1927
Beidari Allaye of Ngouma Poullo Djom Ere et le Tuareg

CELHTO

Fulfulde

bilingual

1984
Hambodedjo

Frobenius Atlantis vi. pp. 182-188

?

German

pre-1910
Maaju et le peul du Tooro

Vieillard/Mohamedou pp. 135-142

Fulfulde

bilingual

ca. 1928
Maaju le Torodo et Kumbo Budi

Vieillard/Mohammedou pp. 129-134

Fulfulde

bilingual

ca. 1927
Abu Lasan et le Futanke

Vieillard/Mohammedou 121-128

Fulfulde

bilingual

ca. 1927
Hama Funa et Safalbe

Vieillard/Mohamedou 114-119

Fulfulde

bilingual

1927
Hamidou Hamarou Kulle

Vieillard/Mohamedou 108-113

Fulfulde

Bilingual

1927
Konig Djennewerre

Frobenius Atlantis vi pp. 190-192

?

German

ca. 1910?
Hamidu Hama Nkulde

Frobenius Atlantis vi. pp. 179-182

?

German

ca. 1910?
Bubu Ardo Gallo

Frobenius Atlantis vi pp. 195-197

?

German

ca. 1910?
Bongoe

Frobenius Atlantis vi. 192-194

?

German

ca. 1910?
Goroba Dike

Frobenius Atlantis vi pp. 171-179

?

German

ca. 1910?
Hamma Alseini Gakoy und Hambodedjos Tod

Frobenius Atlantis vi pp. 188-190

?

German

ca. 1910?
Samba Kullung

Frobenius Atlantis vi pp. 95-106

?

German

ca. 1910?
Buge Korroba

Frobenius Atlantis vi. pp. 111-115

?

German

ca. 1910?
Hammadi Fing und Bassala n'Sa

Frobenius Atlantis vi 132-137

?

German

ca. 1910?
Sagate Singo

Frobenius Atlantis vi 142-145

?

German

ca. 1910
Siga Sanke

Frobenius Atlantis vi. pp. 197-202

?

German

ca. 1910
Maliki Edugusega

Frobenius Atlantis vi. pp. 208-210

?

German

ca. 1910?
Die Mabolegende

Frobenius Atlantis vi. pp. 214-215

?

German

ca. 1910?
Die Bailulegende

Frobenius Atlantis vi pp. 212-213

?

German

ca. 1910?
Kombe Alhassu

Frobenius Atlantis vi. pp. 216-220

?

German

1910?
Sidi Baba

Frobenius Atlantis vi pp. 221-226

?

German

1910?
Der Ursprung der Fulbe

Frobenius Atlantis vi pp. 226-228

?

German

1910?
Hassum Labo

Frobenius Atlantis vi. pp. 210-212

?

German

1910?
Besma Sougui

Frobenius Atlantis vi. pp. 203-205

?

German

1910?
Sirani Koro Samba und Samba ta Samba

Frobenius Atlantis vi pp. 106-111

?

German

1910?
Duldibulukassu

Frobenius Atlantis vi. pp. 205-208

?

German

1910?
Idrissa Batal Hambodedio et Hamma Alasseyni Gakoy

Seydou 1976 pp. 317-353

Fulfulde

bilingual

1970
Yero Battare Silamaka à l'étang de Jibo

Vieillard/Mohammedou pp. 104-107

Seydou 1972, pp. 268-271

Fulfulde

bilingual

1928
Hamma Diam Bouraima Hambodedio et Saigalare

Seydou 1976 pp. 41-131

Fulfulde

bilingual

1970
Yero Camara Da Monzon et les Peuls

Meyer 173-180

Pulaar

French

ca. 1977
Kolado Cisse (?) Hambodedio et Tene Monzon

Vieillard/Mohammedou pp. 23-29

Fulfulde

bilingual

ca. 1927
Kolado Cisse Gelaajo et Cheikou Amadou

Vieillard/Mohammedou pp. 72 ff.

Fulfulde

bilingual

ca. 1927
Hambodedio et Besma Sougui

Vieillard/Mohammedou pp. 15-21

Fulfulde

bilingual

ca. 1927
Ousmane Hambodedio, Fadia et Durowel

Vieillard/Mohammedou pp. 39 ff.

Fulfulde

bilingual

ca. 1927
Hambodedio et Boubou Ardo

Vieillard/Mohammedou pp. 31-37

Fulfulde

bilingual

ca. 1927
Samba Gawlo Futanke Silamaka I

Vieillard/Mohammedou 100-101;

Seydou 1972 pp. 262-267

Fulfulde

bilingual

1928
Silamaka II

Vieillard/Mohammedou 102

Fulfulde

bilingual

1927
Mammadou Ham-Barke Silamaka et Poullori

Seydou 1972 pp. 218-241

Fulfulde

Bilingual

1967
Malum Hassan A Chronicle of Abuja

Hassan and Shuaibu

English 1952
Amadou Mabo Hambodedio et le Peul Dembere

Seydou 1976 pp. 355-415

Fulfulde

bilingual

1975
Paate Ndiaw Hambodedio et Fatimata Baaba Lobbo

Meyer 228-239

Pulaar

French

ca. 1977
Sambourou Parita Hambodedio et Besma Sougui

Seydou 1976 pp. 201-205

Fulfulde

bilingual

ca. 1970
Hambodedio et ses compagnons

Seydou 1976 pp. 133-199

Fulfulde

bilingual

1970
Maabal Samburu Silamaka et Poullori

Kesteloot and Ba 1969

Kesteloot 1993 II pp. 83-103

Fulfulde?

French

1965?
Amadou Sangor Origine des Maabo

Zeltner 1913 143-145

?

French

pre-1913
Ougoumala Sare of Ngouma La guerre entre Ndje Fara Ndje et Hambodedjo

Ougoumale Sare de Ngouma, CELHTO

Fulfulde

bilingual

1974
Boubacar Tinguidji Silamaka et Poullori

Seydou 1972 T2 and T3 pp. 78-173

Fulfulde

Bilingual

1967, 1968
Silamaka et Poullori

Seydou 1972

Fulfulde

bilingual

1964
La guerre contre Saa

Seydou 1976 pp. 265-315

Fulfulde

bilingual

1967
Silamaka et Amirou Goundaka/Petaka

Seydou 1972 AG and AP

Fulfulde

bilingual

1968
Fashir Abbakar Hassan Baajankaro

Abu-Manga

Fulfulde 1980


REFERENCES

Al-Amin Abu-Manga. Baajankaro: A Fulani Epic from Sudan. n.p. n.d.

Beidari Allaye. Poullo Djom Ere et le Touareg. Niamey. CELHTO/OUA. 1984. ed. and trans. by Bocar Cisse and Almamy Maliki Yattara.

Robert Arnaud. La singulière légendes des soninkés: traditions orales sur le royaume de Koumbi. In L'Islam et la politique musulmane en Afrique occidentale française. Paris, Comité de l'Afrique française, 1912.

Amadou Hampate Ba and Lilyan Kesteloot, "Une épopée peule - Silamaka." L'Homme 8 (1969) pp. 1-36. Reprinted in Kesteloot 1972 vol. iv/1993 vol. 2.

Leo Frobenius, Spielmannsgeschichten der Sahel. Atlantis VI. Iena, Eugen Diederichs, 1921. Reprint Martin Sändig.

Leo Frobenius and Douglas C. Fox (ed. and trans.). African Genesis. Berkeley, Turtle Island Foundation, 1983.

Malam Hassan and Malam Shuaibu. A Chronicle of Abuja. Published for the Abuja Native Administration by the Ibadan University Press. 1952.

Lilyan Kesteloot, ed. and trans. Da Monzon de Segou. Paris, L'Harmattan, 1993. 2 vols. First published 1974, Paris. Fernand Nathan, 4 volumes.

Gerard Meyer, ed. and trans. Récits épiques toucouleurs: la vache, le livre, la lance. Paris: Karthala/ACCT 1991.

Ougoumala Sare. La guerre entre Ndje Fara Ndje et Hambodedjo Hammadi. Niamey, CELHTO/OUA. n.d. (1974?)

Seydou, Christiane. Des Preux, des Belles, des Larrons. Contes du Mali. Paris: Nubia, 1987.

-----, ed. and trans. La geste de Hambodedio ou Hama le rouge. Classiques africains. Paris: Armand Colin, 1976.

-----, ed. and trans. Silâmaka et Poullôri. Classiques africains. Paris: Armand Colin, 1972

-----. Contes et fables des veillées. Paris, Nubia, 1976.

Gilbert Vieillard. "Récits peuls du Macina et du Kounari." Bulletin du Comité d'études historique et scientifique de l'Afrique occidentale française. 14.1 (1931). 137-156.

-----. Récits peuls du Macina, du Kounari, du Djilgodji. ed. Eldridge Mohammedou. Niamey. n.p. n.d.

Franz de Zeltner. Contes du Sénégal et du Niger. Paris: E. Leroux, 1913.

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