Proteins are made by building long chains of amino acids.
The Amino acid structure looks like this:
- The R side chain is attached to central Carbon.
- Each R side chain has a different structure to it
- Twenty different types of side chains (20 amino acids)
- Amino acids are linked together to form long chains.
- Linked together by Peptide bonds a special covalent bond found in proteins.
- Proteins are sometimes called Polypeptides.
- After the chains of Amino acides are constructed, they can fold into more complex structures.
Four Levels of protein structure
- Primary - exact sequence of amino acids before folding.
- Secondary - simple folding create simple structures.
- Tertiary - folding results in complex 3D structures.
- Quaternary - multiple 3D subunits organized into a bigger structure.
- Carries oxygen in the blood- It's made up of 4 specific 3D subunits
- Proper protein function depends on correct 3D structure.
- Any change in the specific primary structure can cause the protein to fold differently.
- A different shape can lead to a different function (or lack of proper function).
- Sickle cell anemia is an example.