Kinesiology 105

Lifetime Activities

Dr. Litzinger

Spring 2002

 

A Guide to Preparing a Lesson Plan

 

Why should I prepare a lesson plan?

 

Preparing a lesson plan takes time and thought. Depending on your familiarity with the subject matter and your teaching experience, lesson planning is a task that occurs effortlessly or it may be filled with false starts and frustrating dead-ends. Yet a well-designed lesson plan can save you time, improve your teaching efficiency, and, most importantly, help your students learn more effectively.

 

A lesson plan guides the instructional process for a single class period and is based on unit-level objectives. In many K-12 schools, a curriculum supervisor predetermines these broad objectives, often in consultation with a committee of teaching colleagues. An example of a unit-level objective might be “Students should understand how force is produced in the throw pattern.” The lesson plan would translate this broad curricular objective into actual experiences for particular learners. One hallmark of expert teaching is the ability to translate broad instructional content like unit objectives into learning experiences for students. A lesson plan provides a framework for making this translation explicit for the teacher, his/her administrative supervisors, and for the students’ parents.

 

What form should I use to plan my lesson?

 

There are several different kinds of lesson plan templates available. Each format has its strengths and shortcomings. Experiment with several different forms until you identify one that best suits your needs. Or better yet, take the best characteristics of each form you work with and design a template that meets your unique needs.

 

How do I prepare a lesson plan using the Kinesiology 105 template?

 

Note: You can download an electronic copy of this template from my Web site: http://www.personal.psu.edu/m9l/Kines105/index.htm. Click on “Assignments” or “Handouts”, and then click on “Lesson Plan Template.”

 

This template provides a framework that helps you organize all the information you need to present an effective lesson. Tips on preparing each section are given below:

 

Heading Information

 

This section contains information that seems obvious to you (the identity of the teacher for example) but may be helpful to someone like a supervisor who is reviewing your work for the first time. For Kinesiology 105 purposes, “teacher” is the name of your teaching group (e. g., Group 1), “date” is the date that you will present your summative teaching presentation, “Lesson # of …” is ”Lesson 1 of 4” and “Lesson Time” is “30 minutes.”

 

Objectives: Instructional objectives describe what your students are expected to learn as a result of your instruction. Objectives are written in terms of student outcomes (i.e., the behaviors that students will perform as a result of your teaching), not teacher activity, and are usually preceded by the phrase “Students will be able to”. The objective “Demonstrate for students how to do a volleyball set” is an example of a teacher-based outcome; this kind of objective is not usually included in a lesson plan. A more effective, student outcomes-based objective is “Students will be able to set the volleyball to a front player from a toss.”

 

Instructional objectives usually contain three components: (1) the behavior expected of the student (e. g., strike, hit, show, support pass); (2) the condition or situation under which the behavior is to be performed (e. g., work with a partner from 10 feet); (3) the criterion to be met or performance level expected (e.g., use accurate form; hit the ball with 90% accuracy). An example of a BCC” type of objective would be: “The student will be able to shift positions in a basketball game in relation to the location of the ball using the 2-1-2- zone defense.” The behavior is “Shift defensive position,” the condition is “Use the 2-1-2- zone defense in game play” and the criterion is “Shift appropriately in relation to the position of the ball.”

 

Remember that the behavior component of the objective is written as an “action” verb that describes what the student is to do. Some examples of “action verbs” that correlate with the three learning domains are:

 

Psychomotor

Affective

Cognitive

Throw

Attends to

State or recognize

Kick

Chooses

Explain or summarize

Defend

Accepts

Demonstrates or modifies

Roll

Values

Designs or creates

Do

Displays

Appraises or contrasts

 

 

Equipment: List each piece of equipment that you’ll need to teach your class. Get into the habit of checking this section the day before you teach and gather the equipment in an easily accessible place. The minutes just before a class begins are often hectic and rushed. If you have your equipment laid out and “ready to go” the day before, you can devote precious pre-class time to reviewing your activity notes and taking a few deep, calming breaths.

 

Content Grid: This portion of the lesson plan details the “nuts and bolts” of your instruction - the activities you and your students will perform. While the details of this section may change “on the spot” as you deliver instruction, articulating the details of your activities before you teach will give you a solid foundation from which to improvise if necessary. Assignment preparation tip: This grid is set up as a table. When you begin typing text into the boxes, they will expand as extra space is needed.

 

1.       Lesson Content & Progression

 

·         Introduction: This section explains how you will introduce your content to your students and also details how you will gain your students attention. This is one part of the lesson where creativity is an asset; don’t be afraid to let your imagination soar.

 

·         Skill Task Analysis: This section answers the question “ How can I break down and recombine the steps of my task so I can effectively teach it to my students?” The more familiar you are with a task, the harder this analysis may be to construct because you’ve forgotten many of the individual skill steps. It may be helpful to explain the skill you’re teaching to someone who is unfamiliar with it because they may be able to spot the steps that escaped your notice. When you’ve finished your analysis, practice the steps you’ve developed to determine if your analysis makes sense and is logically ordered.

 

·         Activity: This section describes the activities that you and your students will be performing during the class. The content for this section is based on information that you’ve provided in the task analysis section. How much detail you include in this description is a matter of personal need and preference. If you are describing a lesson that you have taught several times before, you may only need to include a few well-chosen phrases or sentences. If you are teaching a lesson for the first time, you may want to provide a running narrative of how each activity will progress during the class period. Remember that this section is not only a “cue” for you to consult during class, but it may provide the information that a substitute teacher needs to conduct the class in your absence.

 

·         Review: You should conclude each class by summarizing the content you’ve covered during the period. This review not only gives students a chance to ask any remaining questions, but also provides a cognitive structure for “chunking” instructional material so that it can be stored more effectively in long-term memory.

 

2.       Teaching Styles & Cues:

 

There are several teaching styles or strategies that teachers use to present instructional material. Some frequently used strategies are: Command-teacher directed, where the teacher provides explicit directions to a group of students; Reciprocal-peer teaching, where one student is often used to show or teach a skill to another; Station teaching, where large posters, task cards, audio, video, or computer programs communicate tasks at various location throughout the classroom. Students are divided into groups and progress from station to station under the teacher’s direction; Problem-based, where small groups or individual students are given a particular problem to solve. Students may have already learned the information and skills they need to solve the problem or they may need to teach themselves some of the skills they will need (at this point, the problem-based learning strategy also becomes a self-directed learning strategy); Cooperative learning, where groups of learners are assigned a learning task or project to complete as a team. Students are grouped heterogeneously according to different factors such as race, ability, or social needs.

 

Cues are key words that facilitate a quality performance (i.e., “right foot turned 90 degrees,” “eyes focused upward,” “arms held in a parallel line with the shoulders”). Cues are the characteristics that instructors/peers look for when assessing performance.

 

3.       Managerial Strategies

 

This section outlines how you will organize your instructional space (e.g., diagrams of practice formations) and your students (e.g., how you will divide students into groups) to deliver your instruction. Use this section to give you reminders about when and how to use equipment (“Turn on music here,” “Dim lights before teaching this section”)

 

4.       Evaluation of Objectives

 

This section explains how you will monitor and record your students’ progress in achieving lesson objectives. There are a variety of assessment strategies in addition to the familiar checklists and pen-and-pencil tests that you can use to assess performance. Consider using a form of authentic assessment to evaluate your students. An example of authentic assessment is evaluating a student’s ability to kick and pass a soccer ball by observing his/her performance in a game situation, rather than asking the student to perform isolated kicks and passes in practice. Consult the Web sites listed in your syllabus to discover further information about different forms of assessment.