Over the years, there have been several attempts at regulating pornography on the internet. In 1996, the Communications Decency Act was passed. Within it, all pornagraphy was banned from the internet. However, only one year later during the court case, Reno v. ACLU, the supreme courct decrlared that pornography could not be banned on the grounds that it was legal. The internet is supposed to be treated as the print media when it comes to the First Amendment. This means the goverment should treat it with a hands-off manner. In 1998, there was another attempt to control internet pornography. The Child Online Protection Act allowed for distributors of pornography who knowingly distribute porn to minors to be prosecuted. However, the supreme court struck this down as unconstitutional. Finally, the Children's Internet Protection Act of 2000 was passed which enforced that in public libraries, there has to be a blocking device that blocks pornography on the computers. When the American Library Association sued, the supreme court said that the act was in fact constitutional because it was so narrow.
December 2009 Archives
This was the first major changed in telecommuntions law in over 60 years. The goal of the act was to allow anyone to enter any communications business. It permitted cross-ownership of all media and increased the market limit for TV stations to 39%. The act permitted more multiple ownership and made no limit on ownership of radio stations. Despite all the deregulation that this act entailed, it did still require that the Big 4 stay intact. This meant that none of the main four broadcasting networks could merge. They had to stay separate entities.
www.fcc.gov. "Telecommunications Act of 1996 ." Telecommunications Act of 1996 . 2009.
Web. 15 Dec 2009. <http://www.fcc.gov/telecom.html>.
The FCC is an independent government agency that was established by the Communications Act of 1934. It has the job of regulating interstate and international communications. The communications that the FCC is in charge of regulating are radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. Its control spans over all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and all possessions of the United States.
The President appoints the five commissioners who direct the FCC. These commissioners are confirmed by the Senate for a 5-year term. Out of them, there is Chairperson who is elected by the President. Only Three Commissioners can be from the same political party and none of them can have monetary interest in any business related to the Commission. Since Barack Obama became president, there are three democratic and two republican members of the Commission. Does this mean that there will now be more deregulation of the media?
www.fcc.gov. "About the FCC." About the FCC. 2009. Web. 14 Dec 2009.
Consumer groups and lawmakers are expressing serious concern over the $30 billion deal between Comcast and NBC. A lengthy regulatory battle is bound to ensue over focusing such a large amount g power in one company. Roughly one-fourth of cable subscribers in the U.S. are Comcast consumers and NBC Universal owns many cable networks as well as Universal movie studios.
Analysts say that the merger would face much regulatory review lasting 12 to 18 months, but would likely pass with significant conditions. A big part of the debate for federal regulators will be over how the deal will affect television's future programming.
Critics of the merger are afraid that it will drive up cable TV bills and make come content unavailable to those who don't subscribe to Comcast's services. The company said the it wants to keep both NBC and Universal available to as many people as possible.
Kang, Cecilia. "Merger plans for Comcast, NBC ignite battle over television access." Merger
plans for Comcast, NBC ignite battle over television access. Dec 4, 2009. Web. 10
Dec 2009. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/12/03/AR2009
Vertical and horizontal integration are big factors in the market structure of the computer hardware industry. Vertical integration is common control of firms up and down the production chain. Horizontal integration is common control of firms in the same stage of the production chain. Apple Inc. is horizontally integrated in the transmission/distribution portion of the productions chain. The corporation manufactures not only computers and operating systems but handheld devices, such as the iPod and the iPhone. It is also vertically integrated. Not only does Apple Inc. produce the devices in which to manipulate software, it also owns online stores in which to purchase music and TV shows, iTunes. It also owns the microprocessor company, P.A. Semi.
MacDailyNews, . "Apple has proven that vertical integration works better." Apple has proven
that vertical integration works better. 2006. Web. 20 Oct 2009. <http://www.macdailyne ws.com/index.php/weblog/comments/11398>.
Takahashi, Dean. "Apple Inside? The perils for Apple in creating its own chips." Apple Inside?
The perils for Apple in creating its own chips. 2009. Web. 20 Oct 2009. <http://venturebe at.com/2009/04/29/apple-inside-the-perils-for-apple-in-creating-its-own-chip-team/>.
According to Wikipedia, fake blogs, or flogs, are electronic communication forms that appear to be created from a credible, non-biased source, but which in fact originate from a company or organization for the purpose of marketing a product, service, or political viewpoint. The purpose of fake blogs are to inspire viral marketing or create an interent meme that generates an interest in a product.
As social networking tools become more popular, corporations and special-interest groups lawfully use their own blogs. These blogs promote company agendas without cloaking their identities. An example of this can be found at the following link: http://www.blogsouthwest.com. This is a blog sponsored by Southwest Airlines and written by its employees.
www.wikipedia.org. "Fake Blog." Fake Blog. Dec 6 2009. Web. 9 Dec 2009.