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Figure 1.  A closer look of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) image of quantum corral (2)




Quantum Corral is a ring of 48 iron atoms on a copper (111) surface.  The iron atoms confine some of the copper's surface electrons, making them into quantum states visible as circular rings (or standing-wave patterns defined by 2-D Schrödinger wave equation) inside the corral.  The 48 iron atoms, adsorbed on the copper (111) surface, were moved into position with the tip of a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM), to make a corral ring with a radius of 71.3 Angstroms.  The corral ring resembles as a barrier that forced surface state electrons into quantum states seen in Figure 1 as circular rings of electron density in the interior of corral ring.  The ripples in the corral ring represent the density distribution of a particular set of quantum states of copper's surface electrons.  The quantum corral also represents the popular classic eigenvalue problem in quantum mechanics, known as a particle in a squared well box model.  The image is also obtained by using STM.  Colors were added artificially (1, 2).  The quantum corral also verifies the existence of electrons and resembles a 2-D infinite well.




Figure 2.  The STM image that shows the various stages during the construction of the circular corral (2)



Figure 3.  A quantum corral (colors are added artificially) (3)