The History of Art Education Time Line 1970-1979
Decades of art education history in contexts of schooling and artworlds

  • Robert Smithson was one of the founders of the modern art form known as earthworks or land art. Spiral Jetty was constructed to "explore chaos and order--how natural forces such as wind, rain, heat and cold would effect the work over time."
  • The Amazing Spider Man #96 is released. Although this story features an anti-drug theme, it is still denied the CCA Comics Code logo because it shows actual drug use. Most vendors decide to sell the book regardless, fearing a lack in sales. This delivers a strong blow to the CCA. Teachers fear that if this trend continues that juvenile delinquency will rise again.
  • Pilchuck Glass School is founded by glass artist Dale Chihuly and donors Anne Gould Hauberg and John H. Hauberg. Upon its founding, the school was simply a plot of forest in the foothills of the Cascade Mountains in Washington. Today, the school is recognized as the international center for glass art education. The school's glass art making facilities have developed considerably since the founding of the school and provide tools for instruction in all areas of glass making. These facilites are regarded as some of the best in the world. Pilchuck's fifteen-week intensive summer program attracts the best students and faculty from all over the world. The school's unique curriculum emphasizes immersion in art and creativity while requiring teamwork and collaboration between all students and faculty.
  • Graffiti became a new American art form created by Black and Latino teens. A Puerto Rican sociology student, Hugo Martinez, established the United Graffiti Artists (UGA) in 1972. Prior to the creation of the UGA, graffiti was considered only as vandalism. The following summer, graffiti art, formerly found only in the streets, was introduced to upscale galleries in Soho, New York. This created a new respect for graffiti in the art world. Graffiti art is one way to introduce multicultural art to students in the classroom.
  • The Woman's Caucus for Art was founded. The first year had a total of 4,000 members consisting of artists, teachers, administrators, students, and friends of art. The purpose of this organization is to promote further opportunities for women in the art community. This organization also focuses greatly on advancing the opportunities for people of color. This event is important because it shows the continuing struggle for women to be accepted as equal in the art community.
  • The first part of Title IX was passed in 1972, protecting women in education from discrimination. The law states that, "No person in the United States shall be on the basis of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance." Women had traditionally been the teachers in schools, but had always been seen as the "weaker" and "lesser" sex. This law hoped to promote equality and to do away with sexism. Sexism was hindering the schools from giving students (especially females) better education. Title IX was a big step to creating equality in education.
  • The National Endowment for the Arts began to devise a plan to expose all Americans to art. Plays, dances, critiques, interviews with artists and other art-related programs were to be shown on public television. In the 1970's television had become a major part of most American's lives. The use of television to bring art into the American home instead of people going out to see performances was a major advancement in art education. The National Endowment for the Arts often used the public broadcasting channels to present artistic series on television, giving Americans access to high quality performing arts.
  • In 1973, the Pennsylvania State Governor's School for the Arts was established in Mercyhurst College in Erie, PA; this completely free summer program included the visual arts, theater, dancing, music, and creative writing. The main emphasis at the Governor's school is to improve leadership skills and encourage young adults to create projects for bettering their communities.
  • The Children's Museum of Manhattan (CMOM) was founded in 1973. The museum's intent is to engage children and families in learning through interactive exhibits and educational programs. In addition, CMOM teaches its audience about the cultural diversity within many societies of the world through the use of visual arts.
  • The Dia Art Foundation was established in 1974. Artists in the 1970's were dramatically breaking the norms of modern art.áMany of the art pieces became very large in scale as well as site-specific.áFounders Heiner Friendrich and Philippa de Menil wanted to stretch the traditional boundaries of the modern museum to compensate for the ambitious modern artists.áDia initiates, supports, presents, and preserves modern works of art.
  • Public Law 94-142 (PL 94-142, later known as the Individuals with Disabilities Act) was enacted as a result of many court battles concerning disabled citizens. More emphasis was placed on the rights of the disabled because many World War II veterans put pressure on the U.S. government. This law has been revised many times and now has eight concepts that form its legal basis: right to treatment, right to education (a.k.a. Zero Reject), free education, appropriate education, least restrictive environment, nondiscrimination, shared decision making, and due process. Because of this law, art educators in public schools must adapt lessons for a more diversified learning group. The law has also paved the way for the new wave of alternative schools, where the arts play an important role, and where art education and art therapy are combined.
  • Congress passed Public Law 94-142, also known as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, which required that an individual education plan (IEP) be written for each child. The IEP was designed to be a joint effort between the local educational agency and the child's parents or guardians. It was intended to provide handicapped students with an equal opportunity at a public education while preventing excessive federal involvement. This legislation resulted in ill-prepared teachers teaching mainstreamed special education students in regular classrooms. Furthermore, because art was considered one of the least restrictive programs in schools, art classes generally had a larger percentage of special education students than others.
  • Perhaps the most important law created to support Native Americans in their struggle to retain their culture was the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975. This legislation gave tribes the power to run their own education and health programs through contract with the federal government. Important aspects of the ancient Native American way of life were preserved and passed along in school, rather than "whitewashing" the Native American children by teaching history from the white man's perspective and not allowing room to explore the other aspects of their heritage; various visual arts, dance, music language, and religion could be studied and celebrated as part of the Native Americans' education program.
  • The Joe Kubert School of Cartoon and Graphic art is founded. This is the only school in the world designed especially for students interested in comic books. Joe Kubert himself was a major comic book artist, and his two sons (Andy and Adam) have followed in his footsteps to work as illustrators. They even give guest lectures and teach courses at the school, giving students a chance to learn from seasoned professionals.
  • The Joe Kurbert School of Graphic Art is founded. JKS is the first and currently the leading school for formal training in comic book art. It offers a three-year program and the school is located in Dover, New Jersey.
  • George Lucas released the first movie in the Star Wars trilogy. This was one of many films during a period of popular science fiction films. Star Wars is well-known for its special effects, visual design, and audiovisual innovation. Due to the lack of technology needed to create the effect desired, Lucas and his team had to invent technological methods along the way to make the scenes happen. Ultimately, Lucas did not get the result he had envisioned. So in 1997, Lucas went back and revamped the series. He restored the films, added new scenes, and beefed up special effects using new digital technology. The use of graphic designing programs allowed Lucas's original visions to come to life.