The History of Art Education Time Line 1960-1969
Decades of art education history in contexts of schooling and artworlds

Year
Events
1960
  • Now a popular children's toy, the Etch-A-Sketch, was first produced on July 12, 1960. Invented by Arthur Granjean and produced by the Ohio Art Company, this sand drawing toy allows for hours of entertainment. Children of all ages can perform countless drawings, expanding their minds and gaining a better concentration in artistic creativity. Although its signature color isred, you can now find this toy in a variety of different colors, shapes, and sizes. This unique toy has survived the test of time and will hopefully remain an admired item by all children
1960
  • The Mary Ingraham Bunting Institute of Radcliffe College, formerly known as the Radcliffe Institute for Independent Study, was founded with the intention of increasing the number of female artists represented in public and private collections. Upon its inception, the Institute received more than 2,000 inquiries from prospective fellows, or members. Advantages of becoming a fellow include financial assistance, inclusion in a community of other female artists, and access to all Radcliffe College and Harvard University resources. Bunting Institute Fellows include established and emerging artists working in a variety of media, techniques, subjects, and styles. More than 1,300 women, including scholars, scientists, artists, writers, and musicians have been named fellows since 1960. Bunting artists have validated the success of the Institute through several hundred one-woman shows; displays in the Boston Museum of Art, the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis, and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; and the reception of nearly ten MacArthur Genius Awards.
1961
  • Carl Jung died after making extensive progress in the field of psychology. A former disciple of Freud, Jung is credited with the idea of the collective unconscious, an internal reservoir of impersonal cultural symbolism manifested in dreams and imaginings, shared by all humanity. The founder of analytical psychology, he believed the unconscious played a strong role in personality development. Jung's work would later influence art psychotherapy, and art educators such as Viktor Lowenfeld.
1961
  • Youth Art Month was established in 1961 by Deborah Fanning, Executive Vice President of the Council for Art Education, and The Art & Creative Materials Institute, Inc. (ACMI), a nonprofit organization associated with art material manufacturers. Youth Art Month is an educational program that promotes the value of a quality art education nationwide. Every year during the month of March, special events are held across the country to spread their advocacy of art appreciation. Fanning states, "Students exposed to the creative process through art develop better problem solving skills, excel in other educational subjects, and gain in self esteem." Youth Art Month exhibits the shift from art's perceived aesthetic value to the increasing awareness of art's psychological benefits
1962
  • Pop Art, initiated in England in the mid 1950s, becomes an accepted style in the United States. New York artist Andy Warhol has his first gallery exhibition of Pop paintings in Los Angeles, where he shows the landmark series of 32 Campbell soup can paintings. This exhibition, New Paintings of Common Objects, was the first American museum exhibition of Pop Art, organized by the Pasadena Museum of Modern Art (now the Norton Simon Museum.) This new art style valued the everyday life of popular and mass culture. As a result of the rise of Pop Art, printmaking became a basic part of the creative and economic activity of major European & American artists of the 1960s because print media fit the current styles: flat color, crisp edges, fluorescent inks, metallic papers, and an emphasis on reproduction.
1962
  • On July 10, 1962, the first television image was transmitted to space and back. The American flag waving in front of Earth Station was seen across the United States at four thirty-five that morning. AT&T declared their partnership with NASA in 1960. AT&T designed the satellite and NASA agreed to launch it. Within thirty minutes of Telestar's launch, the satellites was capable of sending out faxes, high-speed data, and live and tapped television. Telestar was the beginning of accelerated exchange of information across the globe. Because of television's capabilities for rapidly exchanging information, it gave the media a whole new dimension, the ability to infiltrate our lives with visual culture.
1962
  • In 1962 the Cuban missle crisis was the peak of the Cold War. Americans had discovered a stockpile of SS-4 ballistic missles in Cuba. This led to a stand-off between the Soviets and the Americans which terrified the nation, both children and adults alike, with the threat of nuclear war.
1962
  • The United States Office of Education establishes its Cultural Affairs Branch, providing important support for arts education. President Kennedy appoints Francis Keppel as Commissioner of Education, who then appoints Kathryn Bloom to the Position of Arts and Humanities advisor the following July. Bloom headed the Arts & Humanities Branch of the United States Office of Education, which in succeeding years grew to a staff of seven and was elevated to the status of a program. The program funded 17 conferences on the arts between October 1964 and November 1996. In 1964 the first conference was a Seminar on Elementary and Secondary School Education in the Visual Arts, held at New York University and directed by Howard Conant. Its recommendations focused mainly on improving teacher recruitment and training.
1962
  • Marvel Comics publishes Amazing Fantasy 15, the first appearance of Spider-Man. Stan Lee wrote the story and Steve Ditko illustrated it. Ironically, the editor of the series at the time hated the idea and felt that the audience would be disgusted by a story featuring spiders. Spider-Man would eventually become a household name and one of the most recognizable fictional characters of all time.
1962
  • Central Midwestern Regional Educational Laboratory (CEMREL) which developed curricula from educational research, created an Aesthetic Education Program. This program introduced not just art, music, and dance, but also incorporated film, literature, and theatre to enrich the lives of elementary children.
1963
  • John F. Kennedy is assassinated on November 22, 1963. President Kennedy was one of the most influencial leaders in American history and left a great impact on the entire nation.
1964
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed under eleven different titles to end desegregation. Title VII specifically declared it unlawful for employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, and natural origin. Along the same lines, Title VI declares it unlawful for any program receiving federal financial assistance to discriminate anyone, and to withhold money from those school systems that do discriminate. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was put in place to help end segregation, specifically in the public school system.
1964
  • Head Start was one of the most important programs of the Economic Opportunity Act, passed by Congress in 1964 as part of the effort against the War on Poverty. Head Start was established so that children of the poor would have the opportunity to enter the educational system on equal terms with children from better economic backgrounds. Head Start programs were focused to help students in school, including the area of Art Education. Art was a part of many Head Start programs. Congressional and public support for the War on Poverty was diverted by the war in Vietnam and growing urban violence. Also a study by Westinghouse was released which found that cognitive gains made by Head Start students were lost by the third grade. This study challenged the idea that Head Start would eliminate school failure and poverty.
1966
  • The National Organization for Women (NOW) was founded by women who wanted their voices to be heard, and one of their top priorities was education. They fought against the injustices of sexual discrimination throughout America. NOW's activist agenda called for equal opportunities in all fields of education, including womenís roles in higher education.
1966
  • Governor William D. Scranton signs legislation for the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts. Act No. 538 states that the Council is charged with the encouragement and development of the various arts in the Commonwealth. The Council's mission supports the diversity, excellence, and importance of the arts in Pennsylvania and makes the arts more available throughout the state. Grants and fellowships are awarded annually to independent artists and community art programs.
1966
  • The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) was created by the U.S. Office of Education to provide educators with access to an extensive body of education-related literature. Today ERIC is the largest education database in the world, containing over 1 million records of journal articles, research reports, curriculum and teaching guides,conference papers, and books. ERIC's collection makes it an important resource for all educators, including those in the arts. One benefit, according to Dr. Gilbert Clark, formerly of the ERIC Art Center, is the opportunity for educators across the country to access a variety of curricula including materials from other countries.
1966
  • In 1966 the first signs of an underground art movement, more commonly known as graffiti, were seen all around the city of Philadelphia. The first known tag artists were Cornbread and Cool Earl who would bomb, or spray paint, underground subways and various other walls. The movement spread to New York; today this controversial art style can be seen in almost every large city around the world. This style has many different tag styles and scales and has become a competitive form of art around the world. Newspaper and magazine articles have been known to describe this art as either an act of vandalism or a new style that has the potential to be hugely accepted as a modern art form.
1968
  • The number of art teachers graduating from college increased by two hundred percent since the 1950s. The only other subject with a larger increase was foreign language.
1969
  • On November 10, 1969, Sesame Street made its first appearance on television. The program was created to help children with their transition from home to a school setting. The show gave kids a head start to learning numbers, colors, the alphabet, and social skills.
1969
  • Ruth Faison Shaw died after a long life dedicated to art and art education. One of her major contributions to the world of art education was the development of modern finger paint and finger painting. She discovered this new medium while teaching English to Italian students in Rome. When a boy in her class cut his finger, she treated it with iodine. A little later she found him in the bathroom making designs on the wall with the red pigment of the iodine, hence finger painting was discovered. After her discovery she went to New York City to teach at the Dalton School. Shaw later opened the Shaw Finger Paint Studio and continued contributing to the world of art education.
1969
  • In 1969 the Internet was launched. AT&T telecommunications network developed the UNIX operating system that made the Internet possible. The development of the Internet not only forever changed the way we learn and communicate, but opened the doors to a new realm of creativity.
1969
  • Art therapy had been emerging as a distinct form of psychotherapy since the 1930's. In 1969, The American Art Therapy Association was formed by professionals who shared the belief that creativity and art were healing and life-enhancing. The association was established to promote awareness and knowledge in the field, to set professional guidelines and standards, and to create new job opportunities. The creation of the Association brought a more conventional side to the field of art therapy. AATA is a national non-profit organization with a total membership of close to 5,000 managed by an elected 11-member board. Two of its main accomplishments have been setting educational standards and requirements to become an art therapist as well as a clear definition of what is considered art therapy. Through the credentials required to become a certified art therapist, AATA recognizes differences and similarities between art therapy and art education found in the rationales and goals for art activities. Art therapy differs from education in that it deals mostly with the psychoanalytic value of the art making process and the healing ability of art. The American Art Therapy Association provides present as well as future art therapists with ethical standards for practice, necessary credentials, educational requirements, and help to be a successful and certified art therapist. This alternate route of therapy can be an effective use of the creative process as a mode of nonverbal communication. Art therapy encourages the healing process through the replacement of damaging behavior patterns with new life-enhancing practices.