HOW DO HUMANS AFFECT WATERSHEDS?

SECTION ONE: Identifying standards and objectives

Essential Elements of Inquiry: (ALL MUST BE WITHIN THE UNIT)

PA Academic Standards for Science and Technology:

PA Academic Standards for Environment and Ecology:

PA Academic Standards for RWLS:

PA Academic Standards for Math:

Enduring Understandings:

Essential Questions:

Performance standards:

To meet the standards, students will be able to:

SECTION TWO: Identifying assessment

SECTION THREE: Identifying lesson activities

Materials

Adaptations for student of special needs:

ENGAGE: Learners become interested, raise questions, and focus attention on target concepts.

Rationale: To develop the idea of the system known as a watershed, students need to build their understanding of a watershed by constructing a model on paper then examining their models for human impacts and natural reactions to the changes caused by humans within the watershed.

Objectives: TSWBAT:

Materials: fishing line, numbered pieces of paper, boxes of crayons, cellophane tape, masking tape, handout of BMPs

Ask:

Distribute materials: The A1, B1, C1, D1, E1, and F1 individuals need to come forward and get a piece of fishing line, two boxes of crayons, a roll of masking tape and a roll of cellophane tape.

Instructions:

Discussion: Students describe how they developed their land and how they used water. Ask:

Pollution Simulation:

Discussion Questions:

Explanation: Items easily identified as your own simulate point source pollution. Other items that are more difficult to claim simulate nonpoint source pollution. These come from multiple sources and are more difficult to tell from whom they come. Point source and nonpoint source pollution both diminish water quality.

*THIS SECTION OF THE LESSON MIGHT BE CONTINUED DURING THE EVALUTATION PHASE!

Problems Solved Discussion: Discuss the BMPs sheet with students, having students identify the land use they chose for their section of river front property and how they might lessen their impact on the water quality of the river.

Assessment: Have students:

EXPLORE: Learners interact with materials and each other.

Center A: What is a watershed?

Center B: What lives in a watershed? Macroinvertebrate Mayhem (Project Wet) see handout

Put a tally on the white board of all macroinvertebrates present before the game begins. Explain that this represents the population at POINT A (a site upstream). Ask students what they think could changes the #s and kinds of macroinvertebrates in the stream.

Then, tell the students that they will play the game at POINT B in the stream (a site downstream from POINT A). Compare tallies before and after each game. Ask students how they would explain the change in #s (agricultural runoff…)

Center C: What can influence water quality within a watershed?

Essential Questions:

Overview: Students determine the pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen levels, and temperature at two different sites along a stream. Students consider the changes and predict possible reasons for the changes. In the EXPLAIN phase, students will use the data acquired at the EXPLORE centers to develop evidence-based explonations.

Lesson Details

Ask:

Temperature animals and plants can only live in temperatures that allow them to function well. Too hot and too cold temperatures can cause animals and plants to migrate or die.

pH – tells how acidic or basic water is. If water gets too acidic or too basic, some animals and plants can’t survive in it.

Dissolved Oxygen – oxygen in the water allows fish and underwater insects to breath. Some oxygen from the air dissolves in water. Plants also release oxygen into the water. Some animals like mosquito larva do really well with low amounts of water. Trout and mayflies need a lot of oxygen to survive. This is the best indicator of water quality.

Nitrogen –When soil and fertilizer is washed into a stream, the nitrogen in it causes plants to grow very fast. The plants grow fast and die. Because of this, plants won’t be there to make oxygen, and bacteria that eat the dead plants will use up the oxygen, affecting animals that need it.

Set up "two sites along the stream" in the classroom, POINT A is upstream from POINT B. Investigate the question: What is the difference in water quality between samples taken at Point A (upstream) and Point B (downstream)? What could be the reasons for these differences?

Discussion:

EXPLAIN: Learners develop explanations that represent their understandings of target concepts.

Using the packets of information provided and any relevant web sites, answer the following questions:

ELABORATE: Learners apply understandings to a new situation

EVALUATE: Learners review and assess what they have learned and how they have learned it. 

SUM OF ITS PARTS: (*THIS SECTION OF THE LESSON MIGHT BE CONTINUED DURING THE EVALUTATION PHASE!)

Problems Solved Discussion: Discuss the BMPs sheet with students, having students identify the land use they chose for their section of river front property and how they might lessen their impact on the water quality of the river.

Questions / Assessment:

OPTIONAL - Have students:

SECTION FOUR: Reflection

Generate two claims about EACH of the following:

 

MY WATERSHED JOURNAL!

HOW DO HUMANS AFFECT WATERSHEDS?

ENGAGE

Brainstorming: Write down everything you know about a watershed:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shake it up Baby?!

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

Watch THE LORAX in Large Group and complete attached sheet!

State Parks Guest Speaker: Heidi Boyle - Sum of the Parts (point and nonpoint source pollution):

 

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

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Center A: What is a watershed?

Draw the watersheds and label important features from each of the three watershed models:

A1:

 

 

A2:

 

 

A3:

 

 

Center B: What lives in a watershed: Macroinvertebrate Mayhem

POINT A (UPSTREAM from POINT B): Types and #s of macroinvertebrates:

 

 

POINT B (DOWNSTREAM from POINT A): Types and #s of macroinvertebrates:

 

How would you explain the change in numbers?_________________

 

Center C: What can influence water quality within a watershed?

STREAM DATA CHART

Test

A (Upstream)

B (Downstream)

C

D

PH

       

pH probe

       

Ammonia

       

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

       

Nitrate (nitrogen)

       

Temperature (probe)

       

 

EXPLAIN: Learners develop explanations that represent their understandings of target concepts.

Using the packets of information provided and any relevant web sites, answer the following questions:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ELABORATE / EVALUATE:

What change would you like to make in your drawing? WHY?_____

What changes do you predict would occur in your data table at C and D? (see data table above) Explain WHY for each factor:

pH ___________________________________________________

Ammonia ______________________________________________

DO __________________________________________________

Nitrate________________________________________________

Temperature__________________________________________