How can nonexperimental research in psychology add to what we already know by common sense?

***Nonexperimental research involves observing and measuring things as they are. Naturalistic observation, interview, survey, case history, and psychometric scales are some of the methods used when it is not possible or unethical to manipulate an independent variable. Nonexperimental research is used to provide solutions to problems. Nonexperimental research can add to what we know by common sense because we can test our beliefs to see how true they are.***

Duke University in Durham, North Carolina gives a brief description of research methods in psychological science.
Professor William N. Singleton from Bridgewater State College lists the "Criteria for Establishing Causality in Nonexperimental Situations" by discussing the X -Y relationship.

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