What's New
Home About Expansins... Protein Structure Expansin Genes abstracts Nomenclature


A listing of updates to the EXPANSIN WEB SITE, organized by date.

23 Feb 2008


Added protein sequences and names for papaya expansins to other_species.htm

13 Feb 2009


Updated rice gene tables

4 Dec 2008


Added references

5 September 2008


Added references (~15)

19 September 2006


  Updated references (10), gene tables page and protein structure page.

22 March 2006


Fixed broken links in abstracts; updated gene names in some older pages of the web site; added couple references

20 Jan 2006


Updated references and updated evolution section

19 July 2004


added two new references (Giordano&Hirsch, Gray-Mitsumune et al.)

26 April 2004


added table for rice sequences and correspondences between new and old names

20 April 2004


updated nomenclature system for expansins and names of Arabidopsis genes


updated commentary about nematode expansin


added some references

30 Jan 2004


Updated Arabidopsis gene list and links


Added 3 references

2 Dec 2003


Updated references and abstracts (many!)

7 April 2002


    Updated corrections to Arabidopsis sequences


    Added reference to Li et al. Plant expansins are a complex multigene family with an ancient evolutionary origin

12 Dec 2001

    Added Arabidopsis expansin sequence list.

11 Dec 2001

    Updated listing of Arabidopsis expansin gene family.

19 Nov 2001

   Added reference to The effect of a microgravity (space) environment on the expression of expansins from the peg and root tissues of Cucumis sativus.

15 Nov 2001

    Added references to:


Expansins: ever-expanding numbers and functions


Cell wall metabolism in fruit softening and quality and its manipulation in transgenic plants


Life behind cell walls: paradigm lost, paradigm regained

bulletThe molecular basis of plant cell wall extension

Two Tomato Expansin Genes Show Divergent Expression and Localization in Embryos during Seed Development and Germination


Elevated sensitivity to gibberellin by vernalization in the vegetative rosette plants of Eustoma grandiflorum and Arabidopsis thaliana.


Extensiometric determination of the rheological properties of the epidermis of growing tomato fruit

21 Sept 2001

    Added references to:


Local expression of expansin induces the entire process of leaf development and modifies leaf shape


A fungal endoglucanase with plant cell wall extension activity


Wall structure and wall loosening. A look backwards and forwards

24 Aug 2001

    Added reference:  Rochange SF, Wenzel CL, McQueen-Mason SJ. (2001) Impaired growth in transgenic plants over-expressing an expansin isoform. Plant Mol Biol 46(5):581-9

13 August 2001

    Added references to


Wu, Y., Thorne, E.T.,  Sharp,  R.E. and Cosgrove, D.J. (2001) Modification of expansin transcript levels in the maize primary root at low water potentials. Plant Physiology 126: 1471-79


Li,L.C.; Cosgrove,D.J. (2001) Grass group I pollen allergens (beta-expansins) lack proteinase activity and do not cause wall loosening via proteolysis. Eur. J. Biochem. 268: 4217-26


Reidy,B.; McQueen-Mason,S.; Nosberger,J.; Fleming,A. (2001) Differential expression of a- and b-expansin genes in the elongating leaf of Festuca pratensis. Plant Mol. Biol. 46: 491-504


Harrison,E.P.; McQueen-Mason,S.J.; Manning,K. (2001)  Expression of six expansin genes in relation to extension activity in developing strawberry fruit. J. Exp. Bot. 52: 1437-46

Updated gene table to include strawberry expansins from Harrison et al., rice a- and b-expansins (including unpublsihed data from Yi Lee and Hans Kende, Michigan State University), and maize a- and b-expansins. 

19 June 2001

    Corrected genomic entry for EXPR in Arabidopsis gene table  

6 June 2001

    Updated Arabidopsis gene table to include expansin-like genes (EXPL1-3 and EXPR, p12)

    added a phylogenetic tree to the Evolution page

    Updated the expansin gene descriptions

25 May 2001

    Updated Arabidopsis gene table for a-expansins and added entries for b-expansins

    Added references to


Wu,Y.; Meeley,R.B.; Cosgrove,D.J. (2001) Analysis and Expression of the alpha-Expansin and beta-Expansin Gene Families in Maize. Plant Physiology 126: 222-232


Downes,B.P.; Steinbaker,C.R.; Crowell,D.N. (2001) Expression and Processing of a Hormonally Regulated beta-Expansin from Soybean. Plant Physiology 126: 244-252

7 April 2001

    Added references to


Wrobel RL, Yoder JI (2001) Differential RNA expression of alpha-expansin gene family members in the parasitic angiosperm Triphysaria versicolor (Scrophulariaceae).  Gene 266:85-93


Ruan Y, Llewellyn D, Furbank R (2001)  The control of single-celled cotton fiber elongation by developmentally reversible gating of plasmodesmata and coordinated expression of sucrose and K+ transporters and expansin. Plant Cell 13: 47-60

11 March 2001

    Added GenBank entries for rice beta-expansins EXPB3-EXPB14 and maize EXP1-5 and EXPB1-8

    Added references to  


Kim et al. (2000) Alpha-expansins in the semiaquatic ferns Marsilea quadrifolia and Regnellidium diphyllum: evolutionary aspects and physiological role in rachis elongation.


Laine et al.  (2000)  The cellulase encoded by the native plasmid of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus plays a role in virulence and contains an expansin-like domain. 

20 January 2001

    Added reference to Zhang & Hasenstein (2000) Distribution of expansins in graviresponding maize roots

20 November 2000

    Added Genbank links to AF184233 and AF184232

19 November 2000

    Added reference to Chen & Bradford (2000) Expression of an expansin is associated with endosperm weakening during tomato seed germination. 

13 November 2000

    Added reference to Baluska et al. (2000): Root Hair Formation: F-Actin-Dependent Tip Growth Is Initiated by Local Assembly of Profilin-Supported F-Actin Meshworks Accumulated within Expansin-Enriched Bulges.

2 November 2000

    Added references to: 


Wu Y, Cosgrove DJ (2000) Adaptation of roots to low water potentials by changes in cell wall extensibility and cell wall proteins  J. Exp. Bot. 51: 1543-1553


Rochange SF, McQueen-Mason SJ  (2000) Expression of a heterologous expansin in transgenic tomato plants. Planta  211: 583-586


Huang J, Takano T, Akita S.  (2000)  Expression of alpha-expansin genes in young seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L.).  Planta  211: 467-473


Cosgrove, DJ  (2000)  Loosening of plant cell walls by expansins. Nature  407: 321-326

28 August 2000

Added Striga expansin GenBank entries to Other_Species Table

27 August 2000

Added reference to O'Malley RC, Lynn DG  (2000)  Expansin message regulation in parasitic angiosperms: Marking time in development.   Plant Cell 12: 1455-1466

11 August 2000

        Added reference to Rose et al. Plant Physiology and to Caderas et al. Plant Physiology

        Added Le-EXP11 to gene tables

8 August 2000

        Added reference to Cho & Cosgrove PNAS 97: 9783-9788

19 June 2000

        Added references to Im et al. Plant Physiology 123: 463

1 June 2000

Added pdf files for Hutchison et al. Plant Physiol. 120: 827-831  and Whitney et al.   Plant J. 22:327-334

31 May 2000

Added pdf file for Vriezen et al. 2000.

Added reference to Whitney SEC, Gidley MJ and McQueen-Mason SJ.  (2000) Probing expansin action using cellulose/hemicellulose composites.  Plant J. 22:327-334

16 May 2000

New hot-linked graphic on Home page; restructured & revised the web site generally.

Added new sections: Protocols; Evolution (pending); Cell Wall site (pending)

New citation Vriezen WH, De Graaf  B, Mariani C, and Vosenek LACJ. Submergence induces expansin gene expression in flooding tolerant Rumex palustris and not in flooding intolerant R. acetosa. Planta 210:956-963, 2000.

New pfd file for McQueen-Mason et al. 1992 Plant Cell 

Added web counter

19 April 2000

added reference & pdf files to Cosgrove 2000 Pl Physiol Biochem 38: 109-124

14 April 2000

added entries into the table for rice alpha-expansins

added pdf file links to Cosgrove 1989; Shcherban et al. 1995

21 February 2000

added citations to the reference and abstract pages:

bulletCosgrove DJ (2000)  New genes and new biological roles for expansins. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 3: 73-78
bulletCatala C, Rose JK, Bennett AB. (2000) Auxin-regulated genes encoding cell wall-modifying proteins are expressed during early tomato fruit growth. Plant Physiol 122 (2):527-534

21 January 2000

Noted the update for FaEXP1 sequence in Genbank

12 January 2000

Reserved names FaEXP3-FaEXP7 (strawberry) for Liz Harrison

Noted near identity of GenBank entries for strawberry FaEXP1 and FaEXP2. This turned out to be due to a mix up in EXP1 and should be corrected by ~22 January 2000

Added new expansin sequences for Rumex species and for tomato

10 January 2000

Added new expansin sequences to the gene table, for strawberry, Marsilea (a fern) and Regnellidium (a fern)

Added the following citations to the reference list:


Bogoslavsky L, Neumann PM.  (1998) Rapid regulation by acid pH of cell wall adjustment and leaf growth in maize plants responding to reversal of water stress. Plant Physiol. 118 (2):701-709

bulletBrummell DA, Harpster MH, Civello PM, Palys JM, Bennett AB, and Dunsmuir P.  (1999) Modification of expansin protein abundance in tomato fruit alters softening and cell wall polymer metabolism during ripening. Plant Cell 11 (11):2203-2216
bulletCivello PM, Powell ALT, Sabehat A, and Bennett AB.  (1999) An expansin gene expressed in ripening strawberry fruit. Plant Physiol. 121 (4):1273-1279
bulletCho HT, Kende H (1998) Tissue localization of expansins in deepwater rice. Plant Journal. 15: 805-812 

14 Sept 1999

Added the tomato Le-EXP10 gene to the Lycopericum listings and updated the GB Accession # for Le-EXP8

Added the following citations:

bulletFenwick KM; Apperley DC; Cosgrove DJ; Jarvis MC  (1999) Polymer mobility in cell walls of cucumber hypocotyls.  Phytochemistry 51: 17-22
bulletGrobe K; Becker WM;. Petersen A. (1999)  Grass group I allergens (b-expansins) are novel, papain-related proteinases. Eur.J.Biochem. 263:33-40

19 August 1999

Added the WHAT'S NEW page

Added the following citations and abstracts:

bulletCeccardi, TL; Barthe, GA; Derrick, KS  (1998)  A novel protein associated with citrus blight has sequence similarities to expansin  Plant Mol. Biol. 38: 775-783 
bulletCosgrove DJ (1999) Expansins and other agents that enhance cell wall extensibility. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol.  50: 391-417
bulletDownes, BP; Crowell, DN (1998)  Cytokinin regulates the expression of a soybean beta-expansin gene by a post-transcriptional mechanism  Plant Mol.  Biol., 37:  437-444 
bulletFleming, AJ; Caderas, D; Wehrli, E, et al.  (1999)  Analysis of expansin-induced morphogenesis on the apical meristem of tomato.  PLANTA  208: 166-174 
bulletHutchison, KW; Singer, PB; McInnis, S, Expansins are conserved in conifers and expressed in hypocotyls in response to exogenous auxin.  Plant Physiol. 120: 827-831
bulletMcQueen-Mason, SJ; Rochange, F  (1999)  Expansins in plant growth and development: an update on an emerging topic.  Plant Biology 1:19-25 
bulletPena, MJ; Zarra, I; Revilla, G  (1999)  Autolysis promotes the extension capacity of Zea mays coleoptile cell watts in response to acid pH solutions.  Plant Cell Physiol. 40: 565-570
bulletShieh, MW; Cosgrove, DJ  (1998)  Expansins.  J. Plant  Res., 111:149-157

Added the following expansin sequence entries from Genbank:

bulletLycopersicum Exp2 gene  AJ239068
bulletLycopersicum Exp9 cDNA AJ243340
bulletRumex palustra Exp1-5 partial cds
bulletPinus taeda expansin cDNA, full cds AF085330

This page was last updated on 03/22/06.

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