Michael R. Gannon
Professor of Biology
Ecology of Bats
Ph. D. Texas Tech University 1991 - Biology and Ecology
M.S. SUNY Brockport 1984 - Biology
B.A. SUNY Oswego 1980 - Biology
A.A.S. Rockland Community College (SUNY) 1978- Applied Science
Department of Biology
Penn State Altoona College
3000 Ivyside Park
Altoona, PA 16601-3760
Research Associate, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Section of Mammals
Pennsylvania Biological Survey, Mammal
Send E-MAIL to Michael Gannon
I have conducted ecological research on bats on the Caribbean
Islands of Puerto Rico,
and St. John, U. S.
Virgin Islands. Much of this work is concerned with
long-term monitoring of bat populations and the effects that
Hurricanes have on them. In addition, I have worked in the Allegheny National
State Park, and other locations in the Commonwealth of
Pennsylvania. Here, my students and I have been developing
ultrasonic bat survey techniques which may be used to identify
different species of bats by their ultrasonic calls. This
includes the endangered Indiana Bat.
Photographs of bats on this page © by M. R.
Gannon. They may not be used,
reproduced, copied, or posted elsewhere, for any reason, without permission.
All rights reserved.
Gannon, M. R.
Ecology, Reproduction, and Systematics of Stenoderma rufum in
the Tabonuco Rain Forest of Puerto Rico. Texas Tech
University, 189 pp.
Dissertation Adviser: Michael R. Willig
Gannon, M. R., C. A. Iudica, and S. Mistry. 2013. The Bats of Pennsylvania. Center for Bat Research, Outreach, and Conservation, Indiana State University
Gannon, M. R., A. Kurta, A. Rodriguéz-Durán, and M. R. Willig. 2005. The Bats of Puerto Rico. Texas Tech Press.
Book Chapters - Click on a link below to download a pdf version of that publication.
Gannon, M. R. and B. N. Bovard. 2016. The Value of Bats: Keystone species in the Keystone State: IN: Ecology and Conservation of Pennsylvania's bats in a time of crisis (H.P. Whidden, D. Reader, C. Butchkoski, and G. Turner, eds.). Pennsylvania Academy of Science. In Press.
N. Brokaw, J. Zimmerman, M. Willig, G. Camilo, A.
Covich, T. Crowl, N. Fetcher, M. Gannon, B. Haines, J. Lodge,
A. Lugo, R. Myster, C. Pringle, J. Sharpe, F. Scatena, T.
Schowalter, W. Silver, J. Thompson, D. Vogt, K. Vogt, R.
Waide, L. Walker, L. Woolbright, J. Wunderle, X. Zou.
to Disturbance. In: A Caribbean Forest
Tapestry: The Multidimensional Nature of Disturbance and
Response (N. Brokaw, T. Crowl, A. Lugo, W. McDowell, F.
Scatena, R. Waide, and M. Willig. eds.) Oxford University
Press. (pdf not available).
Gannon, M. R. and M. R. Willig. 2009. Island in the Storm: Disturbance Ecology of Plant-visiting bats on the Hurricane-prone island of Puerto Rico. In: Island Bats: Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation (T. H. Fleming and P. A. Racey, eds.), pp 281-301. Univ. of Chicago Press.
Gannon, M. R., and M. R. Willig. 1998. Long-term monitoring protocol for bats: Lessons from the Luquillo Experimental Forest. In: Forest diversity in North, Central, and South America, and the Caribbean: Research and monitoring (F. Dallmeier and J. Comiskey, eds.). Man and Biospehere series, vol. 21:271-291. UNESCO and the Parthenon Publishing Group, Carnforth, Lancashire, UK.
M. R., M. F. Secrest, S. B. Cox, G. R. Camilo, J. F. Cary, J.
Alvarez, and M. R. Gannon. 1998. Long-term
of Snails in the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico:
Heterogeneity, Scale, Disturbance, and Recovery. In:
Forest diversity in North, Central, and South America, and the
Caribbean: Research and monitoring (F. Dallmeier and J.
Comiskey, eds.). Man and Biospehere series, vol. 21:293-322.
UNESCO and the Parthenon Publishing Group, Carnforth,
Willig, M. R., and M. R. Gannon. 1996. Mammals. In: The Food Web of a Tropical Rain Forest (D. P. Reagan and R. B. Waide, eds.), pp. 399-431. Univ. Chicago Press.
Journal Publications - Click
on a link below to download a pdf version of that publication.
Phillips, C. J., C. D. Phillips, J. Groecks, E. P. Lessa, C. Sotero-Caio, B. Tandler, A. Nekrutenko, M. R. Gannon, R. K. Chesser, and R. J. Baker. 2014. Dietary and flight energetic adaptations in a salivary gland transcriptome of an insectivorous bat. PLOS ONE, 9 (1):1-13.
Sikes, R. S., W. L. Gannon, and the Animal Care and Use Committee of the American Society of Mammalogists. 2011. Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research. Journal of Mammalogy, 92(1): 325-353. This committee included Darrin S. Carroll, Centers for Disease Control; Brent J. Danielson, Iowa State University; Jerry W. Dragoo, University of New Mexico; Michael R. Gannon, Pennsylvania State University, Altoona College; William L. Gannon, University of New Mexico; David W. Hale, United States Air Force Academy; Christy McCain, University of Colorado; Daniel K. Odell, Hubbs–SeaWorld Research Institute; Link E. Olson, University of Alaska; Sarah Ressing, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale; Robert S. Sikes (Chair), University of Arkansas at Little Rock; Robert M. Timm, University of Kansas; Stephanie A. Trewhitt, San Jose State University; and Janet E. Whaley, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
K, S. Perkins, and M. R. Gannon. 2009. Host-parasite
interactions of tropical bats in Puerto Rico. Acta
Olnhusen, L. R., and M. R. Gannon. 2004. An evaluation of bat rabies prevention in the United States, based on an analysis from Pennsylvania. Acta Chiropterologica, 6: 163-168.
Jennings, N., S. Parsons, K. E. Barlow, and M. R. Gannon.
and wing morphology of bats from the West Indies .
Acta Chiropterologica, 6: 75-90.
M. R. 2004. Bat
Man in the tropics: Stories of one man’s career in field
studies of bats (book review). Ecology, 85:2912-2913
Dick, C. W., M. R. Gannon, W. E. Little, and M. J. Patrick. 2003. Ectoparasite Associations of Bats from Central Pennsylvania. Journal of Medical Entomology 40(6):813-819.
Jones, K. E., K. E. Barlow, N. Vaughan, A. Rodríguez-Durán, and M. R. Gannon. 2001. Short term impact of extreme environmental disturbance on the bats of Puerto Rico. Animal Conservation, 4:59-66.
Barlow, K. E., N. Vaughan, K. E. Jones, A. Rodríguez-Durán, and M. R. Gannon. 2000. Are bats which pollinate and disperse forest plants particularly sensitive to disturbance? A case study on the effects of Hurricane Georges on bats of Puerto Rico. Bull. British Ecol. Soc., 31: 36-37
Willig, M. R., E. A. Sandlin, and M. R. Gannon. 1998. Habitat selection by a Puerto Rican land snail: structural and taxonomic correlates, Southwestern Naturalist, 43:70-79.
Gannon, M. R., and M. R. Willig. 1997. The effect of lunar illumination on movement and activity of the red fig-eating bat (Stenodermarufum), Biotropica, 29:525-529.
Willig, M. R., and M. R. Gannon. 1997. Gradients of species density and turnover in Marsupials: A hemispheric perspective. Journal of Mammalogy, 78:756-765.
Gannon, M. R., and M. R. Willig. 1995. Ecology of ectoparasites from tropical bats. Journal of Environmental Entomology, 24:1495-1503.
Gannon, M. R. 1994. A new technique for marking bats. Bat Research News, 34:88-89.
Gannon, M. R., and M. R. Willig. 1994. The effects of Hurricane Hugo on the bats of the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico. Biotropica, 26:320-331.
Gannon, M. R. and M. R. Willig. 1994. Records of bat ectoparasites from the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico, Caribbean Journal of Science, 30:281-283.
Gannon, M. R., K. Pardieck, M. R. Willig, and R. B. Waide. 1993. Movement and home range of the Puerto Rican Screech-Owl (Otusnudipes) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest. Caribbean Journal of Science, 29:174-178.
Willig, M. R., E. A. Sandlin, and M. R. Gannon. 1993. Structural and taxonomic components of habitat selection in the neotropical folivore Lamponiusportoricensis (Phasmatodea: Phasmatdidae). Environmental Entomology, 22:634-641.
Gannon, M. R., and M. R. Willig. 1992. Bat Reproduction in the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico, Southwestern Naturalist, 37:414-419.
Gannon, M. R., M. R. Willig, and J. K. Jones, Jr. 1992. Morphometric variation, measurement error, and fluctuating asymmetry in the Red Fig-eating Bat (Stenoderma rufum). Texas Journal of Science, 44:389-404.
Rylander, K., M. R. Gannon, and P. B. Blessing. 1991. Rodent populations in the Chihuahuan Desert of Western Texas. Texas Journal of Science, 43:435-436.
Gannon, M. R., M. R. Willig, K. B. Willis, and M. P. Moulton. 1990. Intraspecific comparisons of diet of Cnemidophorus gularis (Sauria:Teiidae) in Central Texas. Texas Journal of Science, 42:263-272.
Gannon, M. R., and K. B. Willis. 1990 . Clutch size and parasitism of the Texas Spotted Whiptail, Cnemidophorus gularis (Sauria: Teiidae), from South-Central Texas. Southwestern Naturalist, 35:215-217.
Losos, J. B., M. R. Gannon, W. J. Pfeiffer, and R. B. Waide. 1990. Notes on the ecology and behavior of Anolis cuvieri (Lacertilia: Iguanidae) in Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Science, 26: 65-66.
Gannon, M. R., M. R. Willig, and J. K. Jones, Jr. 1989. Sturnira lillium, Mammalian Species, 333:1-5.
Gannon, M. R. 1987. New western distributional record of Terrapene carolina triunguis. Texas Journal of Science, 39: 293.
Undergraduate courses taught at Penn State Altoona College
Biology 110: Basic Concepts and Diversity - This four credit course covers the study of evolution of the major groups of organisms and includes the fundamental concepts of biology.
Biology 129: Mammalian Anatomy - Anatomy of a mammal, with special reference to that of man. Four credits.
141: Introductory Physiology Explanation of the
normal structure and function of
the animal body, with special emphasis on human body systems. Three credits.
142: Physiology laboratory - Experiments
demonstrating basic physiological principles, with
special reference to man. Prerequisite: or concurrent: BIOL 141. One credit.
Biology 240W: Function and Development of Organisms - This four credit course includes the study of development, and physiological processes at the organismic level.
Biology 296/Biology 496: Independent Studies - This is a special to be arranged course where students can receive credit in a variety of different areas related to research and teaching.
Biology 297: Special topics - Biology in the Cinema - This is a seminar course open to all majors. Students view films with a current biological theme, and discuss these films as well as pertinent literature on those topics in a seminar discussion format.
Biology 450W: Experimental Field Biology - A practical introduction to modern experimental techniques for ecological study of terrestrial, marine, and fresh water habitats. Prerequisite: BIOL 220W , BIOL 240W. Five credits.
409: Mammalogy - This three credit course covers the study
all aspects of mammals including identification, systematics,
ecology, and evolution - Prerequisite: Biology 110.
The pages below are links to more information on bats
American Society of
North American Society for Bat
Bat Conservation Trust
Lubee Bat Conservancy
National Speleological Society
Bats and Wind Power
Bats and White
Nose Syndrome (WNS)
Importance of Bats in Agriculture
The pages below are links about homeowners problems and solutions involving bats
Bat Conservation and
PA Bat Removal
Conservation International - Bats in buildings
Game Commission: house bats and bat houses
State Material on Bats and bat problems in the home
Homeowner's Guide to Bat Problems
Free Belfries, A Guide to Bat Proofing (A DVD do it
yourself bat proofing guide available from Penn State )
The Biology Home Pages at Altoona and University Park have links to other Home Pages of Penn State University
Last updated 2/15/16