American Catholics: Roman Catholicism in Twentieth Century America

Class meets Tuesday 02:30-5:30pm, in 308 Willard


Philip Jenkins                                                                                         407 Weaver Building

Please note: I check my e-mail regularly (obsessively?) and this is an excellent way to get in touch with me if you have a quick question or if you want to make an appointment for a more substantial discussion.


The Course

This course examines the place of Catholics and Catholicism in the making of modern America, its politics, society and culture.

Throughout the twentieth century, the Roman Catholic church was by far the largest single religious institution in the United States, affecting the lives of tens of millions of Americans at any given point. The story of Catholicism is integral to our understanding of such major themes in American life as ethnicity, immigration, urban history, race relations, and social welfare; social activism, labor movements, and civil rights campaigns; matters of sexuality, and shifting gender roles. Civil disobedience and anti-war activism have often been founded in Catholic ideas. Frequently, too, the church has been deeply involved in national and regional politics, and both Catholic loyalties and anti-Catholic sentiment have often shaped party allegiances. In fact, it is impossible to understand these themes without paying due regard to the religious dimension. Nor can we understand critical moments of the American experience like the New Deal, the McCarthy era, the activism of the 1960s, or the social revolutions of the 1970s. In recent years, Catholic history has been a very lively scholarly field, with major writings on issues like gender and ethnicity.

American writers, artists, and film-makers have been shaped by Catholic perspectives. Major examples include such writers as Flannery O'Connor, Allen Tate, Walker Percy, and J. F. Powers, key directors like Alfred Hitchcock, John Ford, and Francis Ford Coppola. We will also study such major figures of the Catholic tradition as Dorothy Day, Thomas Merton and Fulton J. Sheen. In turn, Catholic attitudes have done much to shape the presentation of popular culture, notably through decades-long debates over the censorship of books and movies.

The importance of this topic is all the greater as the United States becomes ever more diverse ethnically. Within a few decades, a quarter of Americans will claim Latino roots, and many Asian-American immigrants come from strongly Catholic backgrounds. The story of US Catholicism will be opening a whole new chapter.

This seminar encourages students to apply interdisciplinary perspectives on the study of modern Catholic history. Throughout, we will be using popular culture, particularly literary and cinematic representations to understand social, cultural and political developments.

No previous knowledge of Catholic history or indeed any form of religious history is expected.


Course Requirements

The course will take the format of a reading and discussion seminar. I expect that each week, students will come to class having read a common set of chapters. In addition, I will be allotting particular books to people, either as individuals or small groups, so that they can be responsible for leading discussion about those particular issues. Each student should come to class with at least two open-ended questions around which the discussion of the readings should be organized.

Each student will write a major paper on a topic related to problems and controversies raised in the readings. The paper (about 20-25 typed pages, fully referenced) will analyze some issue related to the Roman Catholic Church in twentieth century America, within the very general model outlined above. Social, political, cultural, literary and cinematic topics are all permissible. There are substantial opportunities to make an original contribution to knowledge, so choose a topic in which you can make substantial use of primary sources and particularly popular culture materials. My earnest (and quite realistic) hope is that your written work will be good enough to be submitted to a journal for publication. I will be asking each participant to make a presentation based on the paper to the whole group during April. Each student will have half an hour to present his/her research and the questions raised.

In addition, I want you to write a paper of about 1,200 words on any one recent book within the general scope of the class. FILM reviews would also be quite acceptable.

Regular class attendance and participation are of course expected as a necessary element of the final grade.

In summary, the grade will be derived as follows:

paper                                                                                         - 60%

book review                                                                                - 20%

attendance and participation                                                           - 10%

presentation                                                                                - 10%




Gregory D. Black,  The Catholic Crusade Against the Movies Cambridge University Press 1998.

ISBN: 0521629055 ;

Dorothy Day,  The Long Loneliness: The Autobiography of Dorothy Day Harper San Francisco 1997; ISBN: 0060617519

Kenneth J. Heineman, A Catholic New Deal. Pennsylvania State University Press  1999. 

ISBN: 0271018968

Philip Jenkins, Pedophiles and Priests (Oxford University Press 2001)

ISBN: 0195145976

Mark Stephen Massa, Catholics and American Culture (Crossroad/Herder & Herder 1999).

 ISBN: 0824519558

John T. McGreevy  Parish Boundaries (University of Chicago Press 1998).

ISBN: 0226558746    

Thomas Merton The Seven Storey Mountain (Harvest Books 1999)

ISBN: 0156010860

Charles Morris American Catholic (Vintage Books 1998).

ISBN: 0679742212

Robert Anthony Orsi, Thank You St. Jude (Yale University Press 1998)

ISBN: 0300076592

J. F. Powers, Wheat That Springeth Green (New York Review of Books, 2000).

ISBN: 0940322242




Please note - Morris's American Catholic is a substantial book, and rather than tackling the whole book in one session, we will be reading chapters of this as relevant to particular classes. I will let you have more details of these readings as the course progresses.


1. January 8.

 Why we cannot understand American history without understanding Catholicism: introduction to key issues. An overview of American Catholicism 1900-1960.


2. January 15

The immigrant experience. Catholic education.

DISCUSS Morris's American Catholic, selected chapters


3. January 22

Catholics and national politics 1920-1960. The labor movement. Anti-Communism

DISCUSS Heineman, A Catholic New Deal


4. January 29

The heart of the matter. Parish life.

DISCUSS Orsi, Thank You Saint Jude




5. February 5

The matter of race. Catholics and African-Americans.

DISCUSS McGreevy, Parish Boundaries


6. February 12

Out of the ghetto - the Americanization of the church 1940-1965. The era of suburbanization: "Protestant, Catholic and Jew"..

DISCUSS Massa, Catholics and American Culture




7. February 19

Catholic social activism: pacifism and civil rights.

DISCUSS Dorothy Day, Long Loneliness


8. February 26

Converts and apostates.

DISCUSS Merton, Seven Storey Mountain




9. March 12

The era of Vatican II. The crisis in clergy numbers.

DISCUSS Powers, Wheat That Springeth Green


10. March 19

A Catholic Civil War? Liberals and conservatives. The politics of morality.

DISCUSS Jenkins, Pedophiles and Priests


11. March 26

"Angry Catholic Women": surging feminism




12. April 2

The Anti-Catholic tradition.


13. April 9

Catholics and popular culture. Issues of censorship and social control

DISCUSS Black,  The Catholic Crusade Against the Movies, 1940-1975


14. April 16



15. April 23







The following bibliography makes no attempt at comprehensiveness, but rather just offers some suggestions that you might find useful in your research papers. Please also note that many of these books are highly partisan and/or polemical, and should be used only with care!


Patrick Allitt , Catholic Converts: British and American Intellectuals Turn to Rome Cornell University Press 1997.

Patrick Allitt , Catholic Intellectuals and Conservative Politics in America 1950-1985 Cornell University Press 1993.

Au, William A. The cross, the flag, and the bomb: American Catholics debate war and peace, 1960-1983 Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985.

William J. Bausch Catholics in Crisis? Twenty Third Pubns 1999

Philip Berrigan,  Fighting the Lamb's War Common Courage Press 1996.

Gregory D. Black,  Hollywood Censored, Cambridge University Press 1996.

Gregory D. Black,  The Catholic Crusade Against the Movies, 1940-1975. Cambridge University Press 1998.

Richard Aloysius Blake Afterimage: The Indelible Catholic Imagination of Six American Filmmakers Loyola Press, 2000

Blanshard, Paul, American Freedom and Catholic Power Boston: Beacon, 1949

Bowman, Jim Bending the Rules: What American Priests Tell American Catholics New York: Crossroad, 1994

Briggs, Kenneth A. Holy Siege, San Francisco: Harper, 1992

Brinkmeyer, Robert H.  Three Catholic writers of the modern South  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1985.

Brown, Alden V. The Grail movement and American Catholicism, 1940-1975 University of Notre Dame Press, 1989.

Byrnes, Timothy A. (1991) Catholic Bishops in American Politics Princeton University Press

Peter Casarella and Raul Gomez, eds., El Cuerpo de Cristo (New York Crossroad, 1998).

Joseph P. Chinnici and Angelyn Dries (Editors), Prayer and Practice in the American Catholic   Community  Orbis Books; 2000

Cogley, John (1974) Catholic America New York: Doubleday Image

James F. Connally, ed., The History of the Archdiocese of Philadelphia (Philadelphia: Archdiocese of Philadelphia, 1976).

John Cooney, The American Pope (New York: Times Books, 1984).

Coutin, Susan Bibler. The culture of protest : religious activism and the U.S. sanctuary movement Boulder : Westview Press, 1993.

Donald F. Crosby, God, Church, and Flag (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1978)

Cross, Robert D. (1968) The Emergence of Liberal Catholicism in America Chicago: Quadrangle Paperback

Michael W. Cuneo, Smoke of Satan : Conservative and Traditionalist Dissent in Contemporary American Catholicism  Johns Hopkins University Press 1999              

Davis, Cyprian. The history of Black Catholics in the United States New York : Crossroad, 1990.

Day, Thomas. Why Catholics can't sing: the culture of Catholicism and the triumph of bad taste New York: Crossroad, 1990.

Michele Dillon, Catholic Identity : Balancing Reason, Faith, and Power (Cambridge Univ Press, 1999)

Dinges, William D., and James Hitchcock (1994) “Roman Catholic Traditionalism and Activist Conservatism in the United States”, in Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby eds., Fundamentalisms Observed (University of Chicago Press).

Jay P.  Dolan and Jaime R. Vidal, eds., Puerto Rican and Cuban Catholics in the U.S., 1900-1965 University of Notre Dame Press,1994.

Jay P.  Dolan and Gilberto M. Hinojosa. Eds., Mexican Americans and the Catholic Church, 1900-1965 University of Notre Dame Press,1994.

Jay P.  Dolan and Allan Figueroa Deck. Eds., Hispanic Catholic culture in the U.S. University of Notre Dame Press,1994.

Dolan, Jay P., The American Catholic experience Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday, 1985.

Marjule Anne Drury, "Anti-Catholicism in Germany, Britain, and the United States: A review and critique of recent scholarship" Church History 70(1) Mar 2001: 98-131

Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh, Women in the Vanishing Cloister Rutgers Univ Press, 1993

Virgilio P. Elizondo, Galilean journey (Maryknoll, NY Orbis Books, 2000),

Ellis, John Tracy,  American Catholicism. 2d ed., rev. University of Chicago Press, [1969].

Ellwood, Robert S. The fifties spiritual marketplace  New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers University Press, 1997.

Ferraro, Barbara, Patricia Hussey and Jane O’Reilly (1990) No Turning Back: Two Nuns’ Battle With the Vatican Over Women’s Right to Choose New York: Poseidon Press

Thomas J. Ferraro (Editor) Catholic Lives, Contemporary America Duke Univ Press, 1997

James T. Fisher, The Catholic Counterculture in America, 1933-1962 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1989).

Fisher, James T., Doctor America : the lives of Thomas A. Dooley, 1927-1961 Amherst : University of Massachusetts Press, 1997.

George Q. Flynn, American Catholics and the Roosevelt Presidency 1932-1936, (Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press 1968).

George Q. Flynn, Roosevelt and Romanism: Catholics and American Diplomacy 1937-1945 (Westport, Conn: 1976);

Thomas C. Fox ,Sexuality and Catholicism  George Braziller 1995

Franchot, Jenny (1994) Roads to Rome: The Antebellum Protestant Encounter with Catholicism, Berkeley: University of California Press

Bryan T. Froehle, Mary L. Gautier Catholicism USA: A Portrait of the Catholic Church in the United States Orbis Books 2000

Giannone, Richard. Flannery O'Connor, Hermit Novelist University of Illinois Press, c2000.

Giles, Paul, American Catholic arts and fictions Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Chester Gillis Roman Catholicism in America Columbia University Pr 2000.

Michael Glazier and  Thomas J. Shelley eds., The encyclopedia of American Catholic history Collegeville, Minn. : Liturgical Press, 1997.

Gleason, Philip. Contending with modernity : : Catholic higher education in the twentieth century New York : Oxford University Press, 1995.

Gleason, Philip. Keeping the faith : American Catholicism, past and present University of Notre Dame Press, 1987.

Gramick, Jeannine, and Robert Nugent (1992) Building Bridges: Gay and Lesbian Reality and the Catholic Church Mystic, CT: Twenty-Third Publications

Greeley, Andrew M.  The American Catholic: a social portrait   New York: Basic Books, 1977.

Greeley, Andrew (1977) An Ugly Little Secret  Kansas City: Sheed Andrews and McMeel

Greeley, Andrew (1986) Confessions of a Parish Priest: An Autobiography New York: Simon and Schuster

Greeley, Andrew, and Mary G. Durkin (1984) Angry Catholic Women Chicago, IL: Thomas More Press

Halsey, William M., The Survival of American Innocence : Catholicism in an era of disillusionment, 1920-1940   University of Notre Dame Press, c1980.

Hastings, Adrian, ed., (1991) Modern Catholicism: Vatican II and After New York: Oxford University Press

Diana L. Hayes  and Cyprian Davis, editors. Taking down our harps : Black Catholics in the United States Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1998.

Heineman, Kenneth J., A Catholic new deal Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999.

Paul Hendrickson, Seminary (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983).

Hentoff, Nat. John Cardinal O'Connor: at the storm center of a changing American Catholic Church New York: Scribner, 1988.

Higham, John (1955) Strangers in the Land New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Peter A. Huff, Allen Tate and the Catholic Revival Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1996.

Robert A. Hutchison Their Kingdom Come: Inside the Secret World of Opus Dei   St Martins Pr 1999

Mark D. Jordan, The Silence of Sodom: Homosexuality in Modern Catholicism University of Chicago Press 2000

Kane, Paula M. Separatism and subculture: Boston Catholicism, 1900-1920  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994.

Paula Kane ,  Karen Kennelly, James J. Kenneally (Editors) Gender Identities in American Catholicism, Orbis Boos 2001

Kaylin, Lucy. For the love of God: the faith and future of the American nun New York: W. Morrow, c2000.

Kelly, George A. (1981) The Battle for the American Church New York: Doubleday Image.

Kelly, George A. The Battle for the American Church Revisited Ignatius Press, 1995

Kenneally, James Joseph, The history of American Catholic women New York: Crossroad, 1990.

Kennedy, Eugene C. Tomorrow's Catholics/yesterday's church New York: Harper & Row, 1988.

Keyser, Les J., and Barbara Keyser (1984). Hollywood and the Catholic Church, Chicago: Loyola University Press.

Kinzer, Donald L. (1964) An Episode in Anti-Catholicism: The American Protective Association Seattle: University of Washington Press

Anne Klejment and Nancy L. Roberts, ed., American Catholic Pacifism Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1996.

Labrie, Ross. The Catholic imagination in American literature Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri Press, 1997.

Lader, Lawrence (1987) Politics, Power and the Church New York: Macmillan

Leddy, Mary Jo, Remi J. DeRoo,and Douglas Roche (1992) In the Eye of the Catholic Storm Toronto: Harper Collins

Lernoux, Penny, Cry of the People  Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1980.

Penny Lernoux, Arthur Jones, Robert Ellsberg, Hearts on Fire: The Story of the Maryknoll Sisters Orbis Books, 1995.

Robert P. Lockwood (Editor) Anti-Catholicism in American Culture (Our Sunday Visitor 2000).

Lynch, Christopher Owen, Selling Catholicism:: Bishop Sheen and the power of television Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1998.

Martin E. Marty, Modern American Religion three volumes published to date (Univ. of Chicago Press).

McAvoy, Thomas T. (1957)  The Great Crisis in American Catholic History 1895-1900 Chicago: Henry Regnery.

McBrien, Richard P. (1992) Report on the Church San Francisco: Harper San Francisco

Peter McDonough  Men Astutely Trained Free Press 1994

Patrick J. McGeever, Rev. Charles Owen Rice - Apostle of Contradiction, (Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press, 1989).

John T. McGreevy  Parish Boundaries (University of Chicago Press 1998).

John T. McGreevy  "Thinking On One's Own," Journal of American History  84(1)(1997): 97-131

Morris J. MacGregor The Emergence of a Black Catholic Community: St. Augustine's in Washington Catholic University of Amer Press 1999

McLoughlin, Emmett (1954) People’s Padre: An Autobiography Boston: Beacon

McLoughlin, Emmett (1960) American Culture and Catholic Schools New York: Lyle Stuart

McLoughlin, Emmett (1962) Crime and Immorality in the Catholic Church New York: Lyle Stuart.

Timothy Matovina and Gerald Eugene Poyo, eds., Presente! (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books 2000)

William W. May, ed, Vatican authority and American Catholic dissent: the Curran case and its consequences New York: Crossroad, 1987.

Moore, Edmund A. (1956) A Catholic Runs for President New York: Ronald Press Co.

Jim Naughton Catholics in Crisis : The Rift Between American Catholics and Their Church Penguin USA 1997

Jack Nelson and Ronald J. Ostrow, The FBI and the Berrigans (New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, 1972);

David J. O'Brien, American Catholics and Social Reform; The New Deal Years New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.

Thomas H. O'Connor. Boston Catholics: a history of the church and its people Northeastern University Press, 1998.

William B. Prendergast The Catholic Voter in American Politics : The Passing of the Democratic Monolith Georgetown University Pr; 1999

Redmont, Jane (1992) Generous Lives; American Catholic Women Today New York: William Morrow

Thomas C. Reeves, America's Bishop: The Life and Times of Fulton J. Sheen Encounter Books, 2001

Rice, David (1990), Shattered Vows: Priests Who Leave. London: Michael Joseph.

Ruether, Rosemary Radford (1985) Women-Church: Theology and Practice of Feminist Liturgical Communities San Francisco: Harper

Schoenherr, Richard A., and Lawrence A. Young (1994) Full Pews and Empty Altars Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin

Schwartz, Michael (1984)  The Persistent Prejudice Huntington, IN: Our Sunday Visitor.

Douglas P. Seaton, Catholics and Radicals: The Association of Catholic Trade Unionists and the American Labor Movement From Depression to Cold War (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1981)

Seidler,  John, and Katherine Meyer (1989) Conflict and Change in the Catholic Church New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press

George Seldes, The Catholic Crisis, (New York: J. Messner, 1939).

A. W. Richard Sipe, (1990), A Secret World: Sexuality and the Search for Celibacy, New York: Brunner/Mazel

A. W. Richard Sipe Sex, Priests, and Power: Anatomy of a Crisis   Brunner/Mazel 1995

Skinner, James M. (1993) The Cross and the Cinema Westport, CT: Praeger

David W. Southern John Lafarge and the Limits of Catholic Interracialism 1911-1963 (Louisiana State Univ Press, 1996)

Sparr, Arnold. To promote, defend, and redeem: the Catholic literary revival and the cultural transformation of American Catholicism, 1920-1960 New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Steichen, Donna (1991), Ungodly Rage: the Hidden Face of Catholic Feminism, San Francisco: Ignatius

Edward Stourton, Absolute Truth (TV Books Inc 2000)

Terrance Sweeney A Church Divided: The Vatican Versus American Catholics Prometheus Books, 1992.

Terrance A. Sweeney, Pamela Shoop Sweeney What God Hath  Joined New York: Ballantine Books 1993

Unsworth, Tim. The last priests in America: conversations with remarkable men New York: Crossroad, 1991.

Robert H. Vasoli, What God Has  Joined Together: The Annulment Crisis in American Catholicism  (New York: Oxford Univ. Press 1998)

Wallace, Ruth A. They call her pastor: a new role for Catholic women Albany : State University of New York Press, 1992.

Frank Walsh, Sin and Censorship: The Catholic Church And The Motion Picture Industry Yale University Press, 1996

Michael Warner, Changing Witness : Catholic Bishops and Public Policy, 1917-1994 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, 1995

Donald Warren, Radio Priest; Charles Coughlin, the Father of Hate Radio. New York: Free Press, 1996

Weaver, Mary Jo (1985) New Catholic Women San Francisco: Harper San Francisco

Mary Jo Weaver, ed.,  What's left?  Liberal American Catholics Indiana University Press, 1999.

Wood, Ralph C. The comedy of redemption: Christian faith and comic vision in four American novelists University of Notre Dame Press, 1988.

Zöller, Michael, Washington and Rome: Catholicism in American Culture University of Notre Dame Press, 1999.



You can find a lot of valuable material in novels and short stories. Some places to start include:

Rudolfo Anaya, Bless Me, Ultima (1972)

Willa Cather, Death Comes For the Archbishop (1927).

John Gregory Dunne, (1977) True Confessions New York: Dutton

Andrew Greeley, (1981) The Cardinal Sins New York: Warner

Andrew Greeley Fall From Grace (New York: G. P. Putnams, 1993).

Walter M. Miller, Jr. A Canticle for Leibowitz Bantam Books, 1959

Edwin O'Connor, The Last Hurrah (1956)

Flannery O'Connor, The Complete Stories (Noonday Press: Reissue edition 1996)                       

J. F. Powers, Wheat That Springeth Green (New York Review of Books, 2000.

J. F. Powers, The Stories of J. F. Powers (New York Review of Books, 2000).

J. F. Powers, Morte D'Urban (New York Review of Books 2000).

Wilfrid Sheed, The Hack (1963).


Plus, of course, many things by authors like Walker Percy, et al.



Just as a general reference, which might be of help in some of your projects, I offer the following very unscientific selection of major films with Catholic themes and prominent clergy characters.


From The “Golden Age” 1930-60

Angels With Dirty Faces                           Bells of Saint Mary’s

Boys Town                                            Fighting Father Dunne

The Fugitive                                           I Confess

Going My Way                                       Keys of the Kingdom

Men of Boys Town                                  The Prisoner

Roaring Twenties                                    Song of Bernadette

Captains Courageous (minor but interesting Catholic element!)


The Later Years, 1960-present

Agnes of God                                         Boys of St. Vincent

The Cardinal                                           Dogma

The Exorcist                                           Godfather III

Household Saints                                    Jeffrey

Monsignor                                             The Pope Must Diet

Priest                                                    Primal Fear

Shoes of the Fisherman                            Sister Mary Explains It All

Stigmata                                                            The Third Miracle

The Verdict

Also minor themes in eg Saturday Night Fever.


If you don’t mind, I’m not even going to MENTION nun films, like The Singing Nun, Sister Act, or anything featuring Elvis.



Patrick Allitt , Catholic Converts: British and American Intellectuals Turn to Rome Cornell University Press 1997.        BX4668.A1A44 1997

Au, William A. The cross, the flag, and the bomb  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985.  BX1795.A85A9 1985

Gregory D. Black,  Hollywood Censored Cambridge University Press 1996.      PN1995.5.B49 1994

Richard Aloysius Blake Afterimage: Loyola Press, 2000        PN1995.5.B494 2000

Blanshard, Paul, American Freedom and Catholic Power Boston: Beacon, 1949,            282.73B611a

Byrnes, Timothy A. (1991) Catholic Bishops in American Politics Princeton University Press BX1407.B57B85 1991

Peter Casarella and Raul Gomez, eds., El Cuerpo de Cristo (New York Crossroad, 1998).             BX1407.H55C84 1998

John Cooney, The American Pope (New York: Times Books, 1984).    BX4705.S74C66 1984

Donald F. Crosby, God, Church, and Flag (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1978) E748.M143C76

Ferraro, Barbara, Patricia Hussey and Jane O’Reilly (1990) No Turning Back: New York: Poseidon Press BX4668.2.F47A3 1990

Thomas J. Ferraro (Editor) Catholic Lives, Contemporary America Duke Univ Press, 1997 BX1406.2.C363 1997

James T. Fisher, The Catholic Counterculture in America, 1933-1962 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1989).         BX1407.I5F57 1989

Mark D. Jordan, The Silence of Sodom: University of Chicago Press 2000        BX1795.H66J67 2000

Kane, Paula M. Separatism and subculture Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994.  F73.9.C3K36 1994

Kelly, George A. (1981) The Battle for the American Church New York: Doubleday Image.BX1406.2.K43

Lynch, Christopher Owen, Selling Catholicism:: Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1998. BX4705.S612L86 1998

David J. O'Brien, American Catholics and Social Reform New York: Oxford University Press, 1968. E184.C3O2

Thomas H. O'Connor. Boston Catholics Northeastern University Press, 1998.   BX1417.B6O36 1998

William B. Prendergast The Catholic Voter in American Politics Georgetown University Pr; 1999 E184.C3P74 1999

Donald Warren, Radio Priest;. New York: Free Press, 1996    BX4705.C7795W35 1996