Confrontation with Communism:

Chronology 1945-1964

 

Philip Jenkins

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/j/p/jpj1/

 

 

1945    July - first explosion of atomic bomb

            July - Potsdam conference

            November - Communists win Yugoslav elections

1946    February - arrest of Klaus Fuchs leads to exposure of “atom spy” ring; George Kennan’s “Long Telegram” warns of Soviet expansionism.

            March - Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech at Fulton, MO.

            May - East/West confrontation over Azerbaijan and northern Iran

            September - Bulgaria becomes a People’s Republic

            September - Archbishop Stepinac on trial in Yugoslavia

            October - Two British warships mined by Albanians in “Corfu Incident”

November - Communists represent largest element in governing coalition in France

1947    January - Communist-dominated coalition wins Polish elections

            March  - Truman doctrine proclaimed

            May - Communist domination established in Hungary

            May - French Communist Party goes into opposition

May - US House Committee on Un-American Activities begins investigation of Hollywood

            June - George Marshall calls for economic aid to Europe

Fall - wave of labor unrest in France splits union movement between Communist and non-Communist factions

            October - HCUA hearings of “Hollywood Ten”

            US National Security Act creates CIA

1948    February - Communist regime in Czechoslovakia

            March - Czech Foreign Minister Masaryk dies mysteriously

            March - Soviets reject four-power control system in Germany

            March - Rumania a People’s Republic

            March - US Congress approves Marshall Plan

            April - Communists defeated in critical elections in Italy

            June - Berlin Airlift begins

            June - Yugoslavia expelled from COMINFORM

            June - Communist leader Gottwald becomes President of Czechoslovakia

            June - mass purges and arrests in Albania and Hungary

            July - Leaders of US Communist Party convicted under Smith Act for advocating                overthrow of government

            August - Whittaker Chambers accuses Alger Hiss

            October - Communist led miners’ strike in France

            December - Hiss indicted

            December - arrest of Hungarian Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty

1949    January - COMECON formed

            February - Cardinal Mindszenty convicted

            April - NATO Treaty signed

            May - Berlin blockade lifted

            May - German Federal Republic (West Germany) in existence

            May - Communists win general elections in Hungary

            September - Soviets detonate their first atomic bomb

            October - People’s Republic declared in China

            October - German Democratic Republic declared

            October - Communists defeated in Greek civil war

1950    January - Alger Hiss convicted of perjury, in second trial

February - Senator McCarthy’s speech warning of massive Communist subversion in the US government

            June - outbreak of Korean war

            November - China intervenes in Korean war

1951    April - General Douglas MacArthur relieved of command of Allied Forces

            May - US tests partially successful fusion bomb at Eniwetok Atoll

            May - British diplomats Burgess and MacLean defect to USSR

1952    October - Britain tests atomic bomb

November - US explodes first successful hydrogen bomb at Eniwetok (“Mike” test)

1953    January - Senator McCarthy chairs US Senate’s Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations

            March - death of Stalin

            June - anti-Communist rising in East Berlin

            June - Rosenbergs executed in US

            July - armistice signed in Korean war

            August  -first Soviet hydrogen bomb detonated

            October - McCarthy committee begins hearings into US Army

1954    January - John Foster Dulles declares policy of “massive retaliation”

March - US explodes 15-megaton fission/fusion bomb in the “Bravo” test at Bikini atoll

            March - US administration attacks work of McCarthy and Roy Cohn

            May - Fall of Dienbienphu ends French war in Indo-China

June - Crucial confrontation between Senator McCarthy and Joseph Welch begins discrediting of McCarthyism

            July  -Vietnam partitioned

            August - US passes Communist Control Act, outlawing CPUSA

            September - Southeast Asia Treaty Organization formed

            December - US Senate votes to condemn McCarthy

1956    February - Khrushchev’s secret speech to Soviet XXth Party Congress

            October - riots in Poland

            October/November - Hungarian uprising

1957    May - British explode hydrogen bomb

            August - Soviets test first ICBM

            October - Soviets launch Sputnik

1958    US and Britain declare moratorium on nuclear testing

1959    January - Castro takes power in Cuba

1960    February - French explode atomic bomb

            May - U2 incident disrupts Paris summit conference

1961    April - Failed invasion of Cuba ends at Bay of Pigs

            August - Berlin Wall erected

1962    April - USA resumes nuclear testing

            October  -Cuba missiles crisis

1963    August - nuclear test ban treaty signed

1964    October - Chinese test atomic bomb