The Catholic Reformation: A Sketch of the Chronology
1. The Unreformed Papacy 1490-1534
Alexander VI 1492-1503.
Julius II 1503-13
Leo X 1513-21
Faced the Lutheran challenge
Hadrian VI d. 1523 - the last non-Italian pope.
Clement VII 1523-34, a Medici
1527 - sack of Rome by Imperial forces
2. The Beginnings of Reform 1534-1565
Paul III 1534-49 Alessandro Farnese
1540, approved Society of Jesus (1534)
1542, Roman Holy Office, or Inquisition
1545, beginning of Council of Trent
Major figures: St. Ignatius Loyola 1491-1556
Julius III 1550-55
1553 - England briefly returned to the Church under Queen Mary
1550, new constitution for Jesuits
1552 Collegium Germanicum established for German priests to restore Catholicism in that country; also very active in encouraging missions to Indies, Far East and Americas
Paul IV 1555-59
Leader of reformist party 1530s
1557, issued Index of Forbidden Books
Confined Jews in ghettos in Rome, and forced them to wear special clothing
Pius IV 1559-1565
more liberal, restricted Inquisition
1560, made Charles Borromeo cardinal
Reconvened Council of Trent, suspended since 1552. Conclusions issued 1562-63:
1. Scripture includes Apocrypha
2. Baptism takes away original sin
3. Christ died for all but benefit only to those to whom it is communicated - Grace inspires people to approach God, and can accept or reject
4. purgatory reaffirmed
5. rejection of priesthood of all believers
6. seven sacraments and transubstantiation reaffirmed
7. clergy forgive and retain sins
8. acceptance of saints, relics, sacred images and indulgences
3. The Height of the Reform Era 1565-1620
Pius V 1566-72
Supported by Charles Borromeo and rigorist party
Revised catechism, missal, breviary, all c 1566-72.
1571, Battle of Lepanto -formed Holy League, with Spain and Venice.
Major figures: St Francis Borgia 1510-1572; St Charles Borromeo 1538-1584
Gregory XIII 1572-1585
Several new colleges at Rome, including (1572), Roman College (Gregorian University); English College 1579; also Greek, Maronite, Armenian, Hungarian colleges
Supported Teresa of AvilaÕs discalced Carmelites, 1580; and Philip NeriÕs Oratorians
1578, catacombs discovered
1582, Gregorian calendar introduced
Major figures: St. Philip Neri 1515-1595; St. Teresa of Avila 1515-1582.
Sixtus V 1585-90
supported missionary efforts in Philippines, Japan, China, South America
Clement VIII 1592-1605
1596, ban on Jewish books
1600, sent Giordano Bruno to the stake
1595-96, accepted treaty of Brest Litovsk, allowing Orthodox in Poland to join church while keeping their own liturgy, as Uniates
1600, great jubilee in Rome - height of reformed papacy.
major figures: St. Robert Bellarmine 1542-1621.
Paul V 1605-21
1606, Venice under Interdict - had forbidden new churches.
1615, allowed use of vernacular liturgy in China
major figures: St. Francis de Sales 1567-1622
4. The Age of Decline 1620-1680
Gregory XV 1621-23
Time of Thirty Years War
Urban VIII 1623-44
1633, Galileo forced to abandon Copernican system
major figures: St Vincent de Paul 1580-1660
Innocent X 1644-55
1654, Christina of Sweden converted to Catholicism
Alexander VII 1655-67
1656, supported liberal Jesuit position on Chinese ceremonies
Innocent XI 1676-1689.
Beatified. Greatest of seventeenth century popes.
major figures: St Margaret Mary Alacoque 1647-1690