Writing Your own Functions and Subroutines
Work on your Homework, and read a tutorial on dbx.
Now that you know something about using functions, it's worth showing you how to write your
own. Why? One simple reason is to save programing work. As your programs become more complicated
you will often find that there are certain calculational sequences which are repeated many times. One
simple example of repeated code is provided in htcoef.f. In this simple example the heat transfer
coefficients are each calculated with just two lines of Fortran. However, for more complicated boiling
flows, this could be closer to 1000 lines rather than 2. Even at 2 lines per evaluation, there is an advantage
in isolating the calculation in a single function subprogram as done in htcoef1.f. If I decide to improve my
approximation or implement the block of programming more efficiently (htcoef3.f), I generally need only
to alter the contents of the function.
Before going any further I should introduce some jargon related to subprograms. In my examples
when the function is used:
the string "Re,D,k,Pr" is often referred to as the "calling sequence" of the function reference. In
the first line of the function subprogram:
the string "Re, Hd,k,Pr" is often called the function's "argument list." Re, D or Hd, k, and Pr are
When writing and using a function there are several simple rules that must be followed.
function name (arg1,arg2, ...,argn)
- The first line of the function subprogram must be in the form:
- The last line of the function must be an "end" statement
- The function should also include a "return" statement (usually just before the "end"
statement), to tell the computer to branch back to the instructions being executed when the
function was called.
- The function must contain at least one arithmetic assignment statement with the name of
the function to the left of the "=", to associate a value with the function.
- A function always has a value associated with its name. You must declare the same type
(REAL, INTEGER, LOGICAL, CHARACTER) within the function for its name (here
"name"), and for its name within any program unit where the function is used.
function test (a,b)
You should match arguments one for one in count and type between the reference to the
function and the function itself. Suppose I have written a function named "test1", whose
first argument is declared as a real number within the function, the second as an integer,
and the third as a real. Anywhere this function is used within my program, the first
argument of the calling sequence must be of type real, the second type integer, and the
third real. Results of failure to maintain this consistency can be seen in the last heat
transfer coefficient evaluation of htcoef2.f. The Fortran 90 INTERFACE statement can
be used to protect you from argument inconsistencies.
- Names used for argument need not match between the function argument list and the
- A variable not in the argument list, but with the same name used in another subprogram (or
the main program) list does not refer to the same address in memory as its namesake
elsewhere, unless you take special action (common blocks and modules). Subprograms are
completely separate entities with very limited means of communicating information. You
don't worry about conflicts in variable names or label values from a program to a
subprogram or between subprograms.
- Sometimes you see forms like "integer function name", "double precision function name",
or "real function name". All are legitimate and save you the type declaration of "name"
within the function.
- Values of arguments can be changed within the function, providing a means for a function
to generate more information for use elsewhere in the program.
You can do virtually anything within a function that you can in a main program.
What happens when you use a function
The machine instructions that implement a function contain the following steps. The
locations associated with each argument in the calling sequence are stored in a location were the
function can find them. This is an important but subtle point. In Fortran, the locations of
arguments are passed to the function. In C, the values associated with the arguments are passed to
the function. The memory location of the next machine instruction after the function evaluation is
also stored where the function can find it. A branch instruction is executed to the machine
instructions that constitute the function. These are executed using the arguments as needed. The
final value of the function is stored in a known location, and a branch is performed to the
instruction address stored before function execution.
Fortran also provides a way to group and use blocks of programming without returning a
value as done with a function. This construct is called a SUBROUTINE. It is very similar to a
function, with the following exceptions.
- No value is associated with a subroutine name. Hence, the subroutine name is not included
in a type statement, and no line exists within the subroutine with the subroutine's name to
the left of an "=".
- The contents of a subroutine are executed with a CALL statement. See htcoef2.f and
htcoef3.f for examples.
Test your knowledge of this material with some review questions.
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