Charles Babbage & Alan Turing

*Final Draft *

Yanel Maryse Ramos

Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage was born in London on December 26, 1792. He was the son of

Benjamin Babbage, a London banker. As a youth Babbage was his own instructor in Algebra.

Upon entering Trinity College, Cambridge in 1811, he found himself far in advance of his

tutors.

Babbage founded the Analytical Society for promoting continental mathematics

and reforming the mathematics of Newton then taught at the university. He was elected a

Fellow of the Royal Society. He played an important role in the establishment of the Association

for the Advancement of Science and the Statistical Society. Babbage acquired the interest in

calculating machinery that became his consuming passion for his life.

His published works are *A Comparative View of the Various Institutions for the *

*Assurance of lives* (1826), *Table of Logarithms of the Natural Numbers from 1 to 108,000 *

(1827), *Reflections on the Decline of Science in England* (1830), *On the Economy of Machinery *

*and Manufacturers* (1832), *Ninth Bridgewater Treatise*(1837), and the autobiographical

*Passages from the life of a Philosopher* (1864).

He is admired by computerists because he was the first person to realize that a

computing machine must be composed of an input device, a memory, a central processing unit,

and an output device. Babbage calculated the first reliable mortality tables. He also worked out

the first speedometer, invented the locomotive "cow catcher" and built a device to study the

retina of the eye.

He is often referred as the "*Father of Computing*" because of his inventions of the

analytical engine, and he is also known as the "*Grandfather of Modern Digital Computing*". The

Charles Babbage Foundation took his name to honor his intellectual contributions and their

relation to modern computers.

Despite his many achievements, the failure to construct his calculating machines

and in particular the failure of the government to support his work left Babbage in his declining

years a disappointed and embittered man.

He died at his home in Dorset Street, London, on October 18, 1871.

Alan Mathison Turing

Alan Mathison Turing was born in a nursing home in Paddington, London, on

June 23, 1912. He belonged in an upper-middle class, distinctive English family. His father,

Julius Mathison Turing was in the Indian Civil Service. Turing had an older brother named John

who was born in 1908. His father died in 1947 and his mother in 1976.

Turing studied at Sherbone School. Then he studied relativity, quantum

mechanics, probability and logic at King’s College, Cambridge University, Princeton University

and at Manchester University.

He is known as the "*Founder of Computer Science*" because he helped design the

first computer and developed early computer that cracked military codes. He helped to crack

German military codes and win World War II against Hitler. Turing who was a strange man,

one who never fitted in anywhere quite successfully, was a mathematician, philosopher, code

breaker and a gay man.

He died on June 7, 1954 by cyanide poisoning in Wilmslow, Cheschire.

References Cited

**A Portrait of Alan Mathison Turing,** F.R.S. O.B.E. in 1951

*http://www.wadham.ox.ac.uk/~ahodges/Turing.html*

* *Founder of computer science, mathematician, philosopher, codebreaker, strange visionary and a gay man. Studies relativity, quantum mechanics, probability and logic.

The Origins of *Alan Turing*

http:www.wadham.ox.ac.uk/~ahodges/origins.htm

Alan Turing was born on 23 June 1912 in a nursing home in London. He is known as the *Founder of Computer Science*, because he helped design the first computer and developed early computer that cracked military codes.__ __

* * Who Was *Charles Babbage*?

http://www.cbi.umn.edu/charles.htm

Charles Babbage was born in London on December 26, 1792. He is often referred as the "*father of computing*" because of his invention of the analytical engine. *The Charles Babbage Foundation* took his name to honor his contributions and their relation to modern computers.** **

About* Charles Babbage*

http:www.scsn.net/users/babbage/aboutcb.htm

The English inventor and mathematician who was the first person to realize that a computing machine must be composed of an input device, a memory, a central processing unit, and an output device.

Books : A Portrait of *Alan Turing*

Bernstein, Jeremy.

Books : A Portrait of Alan Turing.

Source: New Yorker. v61 n48. Jan 20, 1986. p. 78-87.

Article Length: Long (31+ col inches).

Article Type: Book Review-Favorable.

Summary: Jeremy Bernstein reviews "Alan Turing: The Enigma," by Andrew

Hodges.

1. Turing, Alan. 2. Hodges, Andrew. 3. Nonfiction. 4. Biographies. 5.

Scientists.

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