What Kind of Individual Students and Small Groups Succeed in Collaborative Projects?

A First Prize-Winning STAR Project based on a Fall 1996 Empower Project

John A. Johnson, Ph.D.

Professor of Psychology

Penn State DuBois

1. & 2. What I Set Out to Achieve; Why I Wanted to Make These Changes

The major goal I hoped to achieve with my 1996 Empower project was to restore the critical thinking and collaborative work that existed when my introductory psychology (PSY 2) class was smaller. Average class size for PSY 2 had increased from 40 students in each of three sections under the term system in 1981-1982 to an average of 95 students in a single section from 1983-87. Nonetheless, I had encouraged critical thinking and collaborative work even in the large classes by assigning students to small debate teams to research and debate controversial topics in psychology.

Between 1988 and 1993, average enrollment increased to 126 students each fall semester, leading the campus to create two separate sections of PSY 2. Although discussions were possible in these moderately large classes, the logistics of arranging debates for so many students led me to discontinue this activity. Any kind of class discussions virtually vanished in 1994, when cost-cutting measures placed all 186 PSY 2 students in our auditorium. Fall 1994 was a difficult semester. I had hoped to engage my large class with multimedia presentations I had learned to create during the CES Eagles Institute on Teaching and Learning with Computers during the summer. However, our campus did not place a computer in the auditorium to run the presentations until the first day of classes the following year, 1995. Not that it mattered; multimedia presentations further decreased critical thinking and interactivity among students. Students generally copied material from the screen to their notebooks without thinking or talking about ideas.

The announcement for the first Empower Project awards inspired me to design a project to improve the learning climate in PSY 2. I hoped to achieve the following goals with the project:

3. Detailed Description of the Project

[A thoroughly detailed description of the project can be found in my final report to the Schreyer Institute for Innovation in Learning, posted at: http://cac.psu.edu/~j5j/persona/courses/psy002/P002-96/SIILreport.html This report also contains project elements such as detailed instructions to students. An overall description of the course can be found in the course syllabus, available at:

http://cac.psu.edu/~j5j/persona/courses/psy002/P002-96/p2syl96.html]

On the first day of class I distributed and collected a questionnaire (see Appendix A) that assessed studentsí current knowledge of, and attitudes toward, computers and the internet and also asked them how they felt about working in collaborative groups. I gave the class a short slide-show promoting active, collaborative learning and had students complete collaborative exercise (see Appendix B). I eliminated about 50% of the material I normally presented in lecture during the first quarter of the course to teach students the computer skills required to carry out this project and to allow some class time for face-to-face meetings in groups.

I entered studentsí questionnaire responses into a database program, sorted students according to the strength of their reported computer skills and attitudes toward group work, and created 25 groups of 7-8 students, roughly equated for computer skills and attitudes. On the second class meeting, students met in their groups and received instructions for the research project.

I gave all groups eight broad questions (see Appendix C) that I perceived as centrally important to the first quarter of the course. To promote mutual interdependence, I encouraged groups to have each member search for web sites related to one question, annotate the sites, and return the results to the group. To promote individual accountability I asked students to write their own individual answers to the questions.

In lieu of group training exercises, I developed and distributed one of two handouts to each group: either a handout on directive skills or a handout on supportive skills (see Appendix D). I set aside a portion of each class during the first four weeks for groups to meet to coordinate their efforts.

I assessed individual student performance in four ways. The first was the same multiple-choice test I used last year. The second was a paper describing the results of their web-searching, and the third was a rating from the other group members on how much the student contributed to the group. Finally, I assessed changes in studentsí perceptions of their skills and attitudes toward computers and toward group work by re-administering at the end of the course eight questions from the questionnaire administered on the first day. To see what types of students were best suited for collaborative learning, all performance scores were correlated with scores on a professional personality test (the NEO-PI) that students took toward the end of the course.

My student intern, Cynthia Peace assessed group performance in three ways. Cynthia verified the URL of every web site submitted to determine (1) the number of valid web sites submitted by each group, (2) the number of questions answered with web sites, and (3) the percentage of students in each group who actually contributed to the group effort. To Cynthiaís list of indices of group performance, I also added the groupís average score on the first test, average project grade, dispersion of rated contribution to the group, average response to post-questionnaire reactions to web-searching and group work, and percentage of positive and negative behaviors reported in the group. To explore why some groups performed better than others, these measures of group performance for students who received directive skill training were compared with students who received supportive skill training. Group performance was also correlated with studentsí personality scores.

4. & 5. Results and Analyses: Individual Performance

Performance on first multiple-choice test. Careful examination of the content of the 40 items on the first multiple-choice test revealed that I had lectured on the content addressed by 21 of the questions. This confirmed that I had eliminated, as planned, about 50% of the normal lecture material to allow for group work and learning about computers in class. The students' performance on the 19 questions I had not lectured on was not significantly worse than their performance on the 21 questions I had lectured on (the 5% difference was statistically nonsignificant). Overall performance (52%), however, was appreciably worse than the performance of the previous year's class (69%, which is approximately what my classes usually score on the first exam).

Performance on research project. I graded studentsí research projects on a 0-50 scale. Below is a table showing the distribution of scores across different levels of performance:

Score

Meaning

No. of
students

49-50

Outstanding; unusually complete comprehension

4

46-48

Excellent; demonstrated understanding, not just quoting

29

41-45

Good; answers correct enough and derived from WWW

58

36-40

OK; either answers correct but not all derived from WWW or

some mistakes but answers derived from WWW

54

31-35

Problems; some mistakes and also not all answers derived from WWW

6

1-30

Serious problems; clear lack of understanding

0

zero

Failed to turn in anything at all

15

The 33 students whose work I judged to be excellent or outstanding demonstrated the kind of learning I was hoping for: going beyond reciting textbook definitions to communicating deeper levels of comprehension. The 58 students who did "good" work seemed to understand the material well enough, but at a level I would judge to be similar to that of students who do well on multiple-choice tests. The 54 students who did "OK" work would probably earn a C on a multiple choice test. Their answers were very rote, sometimes incorrect, and sometimes copied from other students. The 6 students with "problems" appeared to be academically very weak students.

I have included a sample of student work in Appendix E. This appendix consists of the verbatim contents of a Eudora mailbox containing all of the answers submitted by students in Group A. (Students submitted both an email and hard copy of their answers.) Only one copy of the groupís annotated web sites was requested, but each student was to submit his or her own answers to the eight research questions. Appendix E shows some of the variability of quality in the studentsí answers. Some of the best web sites from the entire class were collated by student intern Cynthia Peace, who posted a summary of these sites on her own web page: http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/c/x/cxp220/ .

Performance as rated contribution to the group. Students rated the contribution of other members of the group by distributing points according to the instructions shown in Appendix F. Each student distributed total points equal to 10 times (N-1), where N = the number students in the group. Each student's final contribution rating was equal to the average of points received from all other members. If every student in the group distributed his or her points equally, each student would receive a contribution score of 10 points. Equal contribution from all group members is a sign of successful collaboration. If ratings between 7 and 13 are indicate that a student is doing his or her fair share, over half (56.4%) of the students would fall in this category. The remainder contributed proportionately too much or too little.

Students also indicated with checkmarks whether they observed any of five positive or five negative behaviors in the group work (see Appendix F). The table below indicates that the average number of each of the five positive comments ranged from about one to three. The only appreciable number of negative comments concerned not attending meetings and not doing expected work; the average number of each of these comments was about one.

Behavior

Mean

Std Dev

Asks appropriate questions

2.87

1.51

Contributes appropriate information

3.07

1.67

Helps others in the group

2.32

1.52

Keeps the meetings running

1.77

1.32

Resolves conflicts within the group

1.07

.95

Does not show up for meetings

1.23

1.36

Doesnít do work expected of him or her

.92

1.21

Interrupts others too often

.11

.38

Doesnít respect others in group

.30

.61

Gets group sidetracked; wastes time

.25

.58

Groups differed in the degree to which students contributed equally and the number of positive and negative comments made in the ratings. My analysis of equality, positive comments, and negative comments at the group level appear later in this paper. Also, a studentís rated contribution and the number of positive and negative comments they received can be predicted to a degree by their personality scores. These results are also presented later.

Students' contribution ratings correlated only slightly, but statistically significantly, with the scores I assigned to their written work (r = .23, p < .01). Studentsí total project scores (my score + group rating) correlated slightly, but significantly (r = .24, p < .01) with their scores on the first multiple choice test, indicating that knowledge demonstrated in the research project is far from equivalent to knowledge demonstrated on multiple-choice tests.

I think I achieved my goal of having most students intensively discuss key course concepts; over 80% received ratings of 7 or higher on the 10-point contribution scale. Iím not sure whether studentsí comprehension improved. The kind of understanding they achieved, as measured by the research project grades, was clearly different from the kind of knowledge evidenced by the multiple-choice test, and the grade distribution was acceptable, if not extraordinary. Nonetheless, only about 20% demonstrated what I would call "deep" understanding of the material. For the remaining 80%, I would hesitate to interpret their learning as higher-level.

Performance as changes in computer skills and attitudes toward group work. The repetition of items on the pre- and post-questionnaires allowed for an assessment of change that might be attributed to the course experience. The results reported here are based on questionnaires completed by 147 of the students. Paired t-test results are based on 146 degrees of freedom, and all differences are significant at the p < .001 level unless indicated otherwise.

On a scale of 1-10, level of computer use increased from 4.1 to 6.6 (t = 11.92). On the same scale, reported level of comfort with computers increased from 4.7 to 6.3 (t = 5.69). From the list of nine possible uses for computers, the average number of reported activities increased from 2.4 to 4.3 (t = 15.42). On the pre-questionnaire, 19% of the students indicated they knew how to connect to a web site, given the address, whereas 96% of the students reported being able to do this on the post-questionnaire. On the pre-questionnaire, 37% of the students indicated they had access to a computer where they lived during the semester; this increased to 47% near the end of the semester. For the students who did not own or have access to a computer, 55% were contemplating buying a computer. The goal of improving studentsí computer literacy and establishing expectations for any time, any place learning was clearly achieved.

The reactions of the students to group work on a 1-10 scale was 4.20 (sd = 2.68). This value is clearly below the neutral midpoint of the scale (5.5), indicating that students, on the whole, did not look favorably on group work. Thus, my goal of having students feel (positively) connected was not uniformly achieved. More detail on this issue can be found in the studentsí open-ended comments solicited at the end of the questionnaire. Many of the students' reviews contained both positive and critical comments. To provide a simple summary, I sorted the comments into categories according to the major point the student seemed to be attempting to make. Here are the results, including examples of actual student comments.

No.

Type of Comment

Example of Actual Comment

82

Groups worked poorly

The group project was a waste of time and energy. I learned nothing except that group projects are hard and it is easier to get a finished project when working alone.

25

Group experience was good

Working in groups was hectic at first and no one wanted to cooperate. Nobody wanted to help you if you were having a problem and weren't very friendly, wouldn't take opinions. But, by the end of the project, everyone was getting along, cooperating, and trying to help each other. So, I think this was a positive experience because we're going to have to deal with people the rest of our lives and you have to adapt and do your best to get along with others, just like at work.

22

Had trouble with computers or with instructions

I felt a lot of stress while working on this project. I didn't really understand much of the instructions, nor was I familiar with using computers. We, as a group, were confused about the computers. If the group had known more about computers, it may have been easier. I did find a lot of support with the other group members. They all tried to help when I was confused. In retrospect, if I had a choice whether or not to do that project, I would say no.

12

Learning computer skills was valuable

The most important aspect of completing projects through groups is communication, which was lacking due to schedule conflicts, computer illiteracy and general laziness. Never having been on the "web" before, I found this very interesting to be involved with. This "education of internet" also helped my other classes by being able to do more thorough research.

The vast majority of comments concerned problems with groups. People complained that it was too difficult to schedule meetings with the group, that other people were not doing their fair share, and that working alone was easier and more productive. Some students' responses in this area contained untempered rejection of the entire concept of group work. On the other hand, many students indicated that the group project was a good idea and might have worked if some aspects had been different (e.g., if all of the group members had been more mature and responsible). Occasionally students offered as suggestions for improving the group work (a) using smaller groups and (b) allowing students to choose their own groups. I followed both suggestions, with positive results, in future collaborative group work.

Predicting individual differences in effective collaboration with a personality test. All of the individual performance measures described above were correlated with scores on the NEO-PI, a widely used inventory for assessing normal differences in personality. The NEO-PI assesses five broad personality domains from what is called the Five-Factor Model: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. The inventory yields five scores from these general domains plus six narrower aspects for each domain, called facets. Correlations reported below are statistically significant at at least the p < .05 level.

None of the personality domains or facets predicted performance on the first multiple choice test. The few scattered correlations of some facets with the second, third, and fourth tests did not show a consistent pattern.

Scores on the internet research project showed a slight inverse relationship to the Depression (r = -.30) and Self-Consciousness facets (r=-.28) from the domain of Neuroticism. Project scores correlated positively with Assertiveness (r=.19) from the Extraversion domain, and Openness to Aesthetics (r=.23) and Openness to Ideas (r=.24) from the Openness to Experience domain. Finally, the highest project scores came from students who scored high in the overall Conscientiousness domain (r=.24) as well as the following facets in that domain: Competence (r=.21), Dutifulness (r=.27), Achievement Striving (r=.24), and Deliberation (r=.29).

Student ratings of contribution to the group correlated with the Assertiveness (r=.31) and Activity facets (r=.21) from the Extraversion domain, Openness to Feelings (r=.21) from the Openness to Experience domain, and Competence (r=.26), Dutifulness (r=.32), Achievement Striving, (r=.36), and Self-Discipline (r=.24), from the domain of Conscientiousness, which itself correlated r=.33 with the ratings.

The number of times a student was said to exhibit positive or negative behaviors correlated mainly with facets from the Conscientiousness domain. Conscientiousness represents the tendency to be organized, purposeful, hard-working, and mature. This domain appears to be the most important for predicting an individual studentís performance in collaborative group work.All of the statistically significant correlations are presented in the table below.

Behavior

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

C

Asks appropriate questions

.20

 

.35

.21

.23

.21

.29

Contributes appropriate information

   

.32

.27

.23

.21

.27

Helps others in the group

.25

 

.37

.41

.26

 

.31

Keeps the meetings running

.25

 

.25

.31

 

 

.23

Resolves conflicts within the group

 

 

.25

.24

.19

 

.24

Does not show up for meetings

-.18

-.18

-.24

-.18

-.22

-.22

-.29

Doesnít do work expected of him or her

 

 

-.29

-.27

-.27

-.23

-.35

Interrupts others too often

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doesnít respect others in group

 

 

 

-.21

-.21

 

-.21

Gets group sidetracked; wastes time

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KEY: C1=Competence, C2=Order, C3=Dutifulness, C4=Achievement Striving,
C5=Self-Discipline, C6=Deliberation, C = overall Conscientiousness

4. & 5. Results and Analyses: Group performance.

The preceding sections described the individual performance of students as assessed by an objective test, research project, group rating, and skill/attitude questionnaire. Another way to analyze the project is to identify which groups are relatively successful and which groups had problems. Successful groups can be defined as groups who are successful in identifying web sites, answering the research questions given to them, and writing high-quality research reports. Members of successful groups should tend to describe each otherís behaviors in positive rather than negative terms. Successful groups are those in which all members contribute equally (nearly everyone earns an average rating of 10; or stated statistically, the standard deviation of ratings is very low).

The table below shows the degree to which these different indices are interrelated. Some of the statistically significant correlations are unsurprising. For example, the number of valid URLs (website addresses) correlated r=.92 with the number of research questions answered correctly. Other findings are less obvious, even in hindsight. For example, the percentage of students who contributed to the group project correlated r=.51 with the average score for that group on the first multiple-choice test. This indicates that collaborative involvement may help with performance even on a separate (and more traditional) multiple-choice test. The only personality score examined was the overall Conscientiousness domain score, because this domain seemed to be related to performance at the individual level. However, the groupís average Conscientiousness score did not relate to any other index of group success. I plan to conduct more particulate research to further examine the role of personality in group functioning.

X1 PRJ SD URL ANS PART F9 F10 POS NEG

X1

PRJ .02

SD -.07 -.10

URL .37 .04 -.14

ANS .36 -.04 -.30 .92

PART .51 -.06 -.49 .57 .65

F9 -.06 .07 -.20 .29 .34 .36

F10 -.15 -.21 -.40 -.07 .02 .17 .61

POS -.02 .08 -.70 -.05 .05 -.00 .14 .43

NEG .02 -.08 .70 .05 -.05 .00 -.14 -.43-1.00

C .19 .09 .13 .13 .14 .11 .14 -.25 -.07 .07

__________________

Correlations > .40 significant at the p < .05 level;

Correlations > .50 significant at the p < .01 level (2-tailed)

Note: X1=First multiple-choice exam score; PRJ=score on internet project; SD=standard deviation of rating scores (smaller SDís indicate more equal contributions); URL=number of valid URLs (web site addresses) identified; ANS=number of correct answers to research questions based on web searching; PART=percentage of students who actively participated by contributing a web site to the group; F9=followup question 9 (opinion of doing web-based research); F10=followup question 10 (opinion of working in groups); POS=percentage of positive comments from total number of comments; NEG= percentage of negative comments from total number of comments; C=groupís average score on the Conscientiousness domain.

One other set of analyses at the group level was conducted by my intern, Cynthia Peace, for her Senior Honors Thesis. She compared the group performance variables for the groups who received the handout on directive skills and the groups that received the handout on supportive skills. My own prediction was that the handouts would not affect anything. I had doubts about whether students put into practice or even read the handouts. To my surprise, we found that groups who had received the supportive skills handout had a higher rate of student participation in the group project. If such a small thing as a handout can make a difference, my feeling is that a more extensive training session could have even a greater effect.

6. Next Steps, Based on These Results

I have already put into effect modified versions of some of the collaborative activities we conducted in the 1996 PSY 2 class. I also have additional plans for the future. The year following the 1996 project, I made two major changes. First, I allowed students to research any topic they wished from the second unit of the course and to post a summary and critique of their findings with the First Class system. Students were also required to post a follow-up to another studentís posting. The second change was to have students discuss in their small groups the answers to questions based upon the textbook reading assignments.

I found the research activity to be a valuable learning experience, but reading and grading so many reports began to be too much for me. Since 1997 I have dropped the research report as a course requirement, and am now considering it as an option or extra credit activity for next year. Judging from the groupsí answers to questions from the readings, I concluded that these discussions did not accomplish what I hoped, which was to get students to read and think about the textbook material before they came to class. I have subsequently dropped this activity, although I am now using it with good success in an upper-level psychology course, Theory of Personality (PSY 438).

Ironically, I think the best innovation was one I added almost as an afterthought: posting the multiple-choice tests on the web a few days before the test date. I implemented this innovation with great trepidation because I feared it might inspire too much rote memorization. It turned out, however, that students reported spending significant amounts of time discussing and debating what they thought the correct answers might be for each question. This is exactly the kind of intellectual activity I would like to see occurring among my students. Seeing the questions beforehand did not guarantee a perfect score on the test. Average scores on the second, third, and fourth exams were 30, 32, and 33 out of 40 points. These averages compare quite favorably-but are not outrageously higher than-average scores from years past (typically in the range of 26-28 points out of 40).

Since the initial discovery of the value of this activity I have modified the test-posting activity in two different ways. In 1997 I posted 40 sample questions; half of the questions that appeared on the actual exam were interspersed with questions that did not appear on the exam. This year I am posting as many questions as I can manage (40-60 additional questions) interspersed with the 40 questions that will be appearing on the actual exam. This way, students must work at least twice as long and hard to find answers to the questions. Scores are still not inflated; the average score on the first exam this year was 72%; the average score on the second exam was 84%.

7. Overall Value of the Project for Me and My Students

Paying close attention to the results of my project has taught me what kinds of learners profit the most from the collaborative activities used in PSY 2. The results also taught me valuable lessons about what works and what does not work in a large class like PSY 2. Students who are emotionally calm, gregarious, and not particularly open to experience report the most positive attitudes about group work. Good performance in structured, small-group projects was highest for students who possess emotional stability, assertiveness, and, above all, conscientiousness. Students who lack energy and maturity do not perform well and do not seem to be helped much by the student who do well. If there is hope for the less mature student, it may lie in social skills training--but such training would probably have to be extensive, taking much time from course content-related work.

The greatest benefit reported by the students was the competency they gained with computer technology and the internet. This achievement was very important to me at that time, because in 1996 very few students possessed computer literacy. I was pleased, not only that they acquired these competencies, but also that they often developed these skills by teaching each other. When only one or two students in a group completely understood what I taught them in class, they were usually willing to help and teach other students in the group. I was hoping this would happen, and I also hoped that students in this large class would act as a catalyst, sharing their newly acquired knowledge and competencies with students in other courses. Reports from instructors in other classes the following semester seemed to indicate that this in fact happened. Although prolonged instruction in computer technology is no longer necessary with todayís entering students, instruction in this area significantly benefited the campus at the time of the project.

Students enjoyed technology-based research much more when they had the freedom to choose their own topics. A general recommendation I would make concerning class activities is to provide as much freedom and choice as feasible for the students. I think the option to work in groups should be a choice rather than a requirement. Group work is not for everyone; not everyone learns best that way. If only a portion of the class (say 30-40 out of 180) engaged in group research projects, I would be less overwhelmed with the amount of grading, and I could provide higher-quality feedback. Trying to manage 180+ students in groups is logistically difficult and unreasonably time-consuming in terms of the payoff. Furthermore, based on additional experiences in other psychology courses (PSY 243 and PSY 438), I find that students do better when they can choose which students to work with in the small groups. Flexibility, choice, and freedom: these concepts are central to technology-based, distributed learning. To respect individual differences in learning styles, I think we need to allow as much flexibility, choice, and freedom as possible in collaborative group work.

Appendix A

Project Empower

Student Technology Questionnaire

Name _____________________________________

Courses Enrolled for Fall 1996 semester

List: Course Number, Section & Name of course & Faculty

  1. _______________________________________________________
  2. _______________________________________________________
  3. _______________________________________________________
  4. _______________________________________________________
  5. _______________________________________________________
  6. _______________________________________________________

1. At what level would you rate your current use of computers?

Please circle only one number.

1 = the least amount of computer use; 10 = the highest amount of use

lowest use highest use

1----2----3----4----5----6----7----8----9----10

2. How comfortable are you with using computers?

Please circle only one number.

1 = the least comfortable; 10 = most comfortable

least comfortable most comfortable

1----2----3----4----5----6----7----8----9----10

 

3. If asked to today, would you know how to go into the computer lab, use internet access, and find a particular web address (for instance, http://cac.psu.edu/~dwm7/eng5o.html)?

a. yes

b. no

4. What do you currently use computers for?

Circle all that apply

a. word processing

b. statistical analysis

c. multi-media

d. games

e. presentations

f. conferencing (e-mail, chat rooms, etc.)

g. research

h. internet, WWW (Netscape)

i. others, (please explain)______________________________________

5. If you use any of the above tools in question #4, how often?

a. daily

b. weekly

c. seldom

    1. other, (please specify)_______________________________________
  1. Do you have a preference, if any, for using MAC or IBM computers?

a. MAC preference

    1. IBM (compatible) preference
    2. no preference
  1. Do you have access to a computer at your home?
    1. yes

b. no

  1. Do you use a modem on your computer system, if you have one at home?
    1. yes
    2. no

9. If you have access to a computer(s) at home, what kind is it? Circle all that apply.

    1. IBM-compatible laptop
    2. IBM-compatible desktop
    3. Macintosh desktop
    4. Macintosh laptop
    5. does not apply

10. Where is the main place that you use computers?

    1. home
    2. dorm or apartment
    3. Penn State DuBois Campus
    4. anywhere (I own a laptop)
    5. I do not use computers

11

. Do you have a computer where you live during the semester (at your home, apartment, or dorm?

a. yes

    1. no
  1. If yes, does that computer have software to allow you World Wide Web access?
    1. yes
    2. no

13. Has your use of computers, if any, been affected due to accessibility to computers in the Penn State DuBois Campus computer labs?

a. yes

b. no

c. sometimes

d. does not apply

 

  1. What type of computer equipment would you be interested in receiving instruction on? (i.e., desktop computer, laptop computer, laser printers, photo scanners)

Please list below:

_______________________________________________________

 

_______________________________________________________

  1. What items on the list below would you be interested in learning to use:

Please circle any below:

    1. World Wide Web
    2. Web Page Creation (HTML text editor)
    3. Powerpoint (Clasroom Presentation Package)
    4. Internet
    5. Word Processing Packages
    6. CD ROMS
    7. Eudora (e-mail)
    8. h. First Class (conferencing package, similar to "Pow-Wow")

 

  1. What would you use these technology tools for?
  2. Circle all that apply.

 

    1. Research
    2. Presentations and class assignments
    3. Personal use (outside of class)
    4. Group discussions and conferencing
    5. other, (please explain)

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

 

17. How would you feel about being evaluated through interactive computer instead of a traditional testing methods (i.e. multiple choice paper exams, essays?

Rank your interest level regarding evaluation through use of interactive computers. 1 = low interest; 10 high interest. Please circle only one number.

low interest high interest

1----2----3----4----5----6----7----8----9----10

 

18. If you have an e-mail address, please list it below:

_______________________________________________________

Appendix B

Collaborative Learning: The First Day of Class (submitted by Margaret Whalen) p. 111

from Kadel, S., & Keehner, J. A. (1994). Collaborative Learning: A Sourcebook for Higher Education, Vol. II. University Park, PA: National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment.

  1. Introduce self.
  2. Divide into groups, students introduce selves to each other.
  3. Group generates 8 questions about the class (e.g., assignments, topics covered, grading policy).
  4. Instructor hands out syllabus.
  5. Group notes degree to which syllabus answers questions.
  6. Groups note questions not answered by syllabus or new questions that arose upon reading syllabus.
  7. Class reconvenes and discusses with instructor the remaining questions.

Appendix C

Eight Fundamental Questions for WWW Research Project

Definitions of psychology. How has psychology been defined and why do people have different opinions about what psychology is and what it should be?

Psychological explanation. What is an adequate psychological explanation?

Fields of psychology. What do psychologists in different fields do?

History of basic psychology. What historical events influenced the way basic psychological science is conducted today?

History of applied psychology. What historical events influenced the way applied psychological science is conducted today?

Experimental research in psychology. How can psychological experiments add to what we already know by common sense?

Nonexperimental research in psychology. How can nonexperimental research in psychology add to what we already know by common sense?

Dualisms in psychology. Psychology can be characterized by a number of dualisms: mind/behavior, internal/external causes, basic/applied goals, experimental/nonexperimental methods. For any one of these dualisms, why would a psychologist focus on one side of the dualism? On the other side?

Appendix D

Useful Information about Working in Groups

Because I am requiring you to work in groups, I feel an obligation to teach you some skills that will help your group function well. More than two dozen such skills exist, but many of these fall into one of two general areas, namely,

Group Management or Directive Skills, and

Interpersonal or Supportive Skills.

Group management skills involve organizing and coordinating activities that enable tasks to get completed on time. Interpersonal skills involve creating and maintaining smooth, effective, harmonious working relationships that lead to satisfaction and good morale. Every one of you has at least some directive and supportive skills. Depending on your past experiences, your group members will probably be at different skill levels. For those of you with well-developed skills, this document will simply remind you about what you already know. For others, it will help you develop higher levels of skill.

Because you already have considerable work to do on the project itself, I am not presenting here information on both directive and supportive skills. Rather, for half the groups in this class, the rest of this document contains information on directive skills. For the other half of the groups, the remainder of this document contains information on relationship skills. When this unit is over and the projects have been completed I will be surveying you to see how helpful this information was to you.

Your group, group [letter of group inserted here], is receiving information about [either directive or supportive inserted here] skills.

 

 

 

Directive Skills

The heart of directive skills is clear organization. This involves identifying the tasks that must be completed to achieve the group's goal, developing a timeline for completion of the tasks, assigning the tasks to group members, and keeping a progress chart.

Set goal. This has been done for you already. The goal is stated in the Project Description: To locate sites on the World Wide Web (WWW) that help answer eight questions central to the first unit of the course.

Identify broad steps to goal. This also has been done for you already. The main steps for accomplishing your goal as stated in the Project Description are (1) searching for www sites, (2) creating an annotated list of the www sites, and (3) writing and submitting answers to the eight questions based on information in the www sites.

Identify and assign tasks for each step. Your group must determine what tasks need to be accomplished and who will accomplish them. Some of the tasks include:

identifying search keywords for each question

trying the keywords in actual www searches

recording www site addresses of possibly relevant sites

deciding whether recorded sites are sufficient to answer questions

identifying and trying new keywords, if necessary

settling upon a final list of sites

writing an annotation for each site

considering possible answers to questions based on www information

writing answers to the questions

Except for the last task, which must be done individually, the other tasks can be done by the group as a whole, by subgroups, or by individuals working alone. For example, the entire group can discuss search keywords for all eight questions, or the questions can be divided among group members, each of whom will identify keywords for his or her own question(s). Group members can surf the www individually or in pairs or larger groups (limited only by how many people can huddle around the computer screen).

In today's meeting you should make some progress on identifying and assigning tasks. This process should be completed during Thursday's meeting. Get the task assignments in writing to make sure every group member knows his or her responsibilities.

Create a timeline and chart progress. Your timeline should include dates by which you expect to accomplish the tasks, scheduled group meetings (with stated purpose of each meeting), and outcomes (what was accomplished, what needs to be done). This timeline is again something the group must devise around the tasks you identify, but it might look something like the following:

 

Task Persons involved Date Outcome

Choose leader whole group 9/3 Brenda offers to lead group; group agrees

Begin to identify

tasks whole group 9/3 Each member chooses a question to research. Brenda asks everyone to make a list by 9/5

Complete list of

tasks whole group 9/5 Group settles on list; Joe offers to type list and make copy for everyone

Get everyone

familiarized with

Netscape CyberSam 9/6&9 Cybersam demonstrates Netscape to novices in group during common hours

Identify search

keywords whole group 9/10 Following list of keywords identified: ......

Report on initial

searches whole group 9/12 At least two good sites located for all but last question

This timeline can be modified if absolutely necessary, but you should strive to keep on track as much as possible. This brings us to the next directive skill.

Keep people on track. Some person or persons need to make sure tasks are getting accomplished. Part of this involves keeping a progress chart like the one above and reminding the group where they stand. It also involves bringing people back to the purpose of meetings if someone should go off on a tangents.

Trouble-shooting. Finally, if a problem arises that blocks group progress, possible solutions need to be identified and tried. For example, if a group member is having trouble sending email, some person or persons will attempt to identify and solve the problem.

Supportive Skills

Supportive skills often involve nonverbal behavior such as facial expression, tone of voice, and body language. These nonverbal behaviors can be demonstrated more easily from an actual or videotaped group interaction than from a written description such as this one. Nonetheless, if you read the following descriptions of supportive skills carefully you will probably start spotting them in actual group meetings. Your group might even have someone (this role could be rotated) who observes and takes notes on when supportive skills were and were not demonstrated in a meeting.

Know your group members as persons. Everyone--even introverts--want to be known by others. Make an effort to get to know the people in your group, beginning with everyone's name. One's name is usually music to one's ears, so address everyone by their name whenever possible.

Bad: "Hey you, did you find any web sites on experiments?"

Good: "Jim, did you find any web sites on experiments?"

Before your group does anything else, I suggest that everyone introduces themselves and tells the group something about themselves they would like the group to know.

Participate openly. Complete participation from all group members is essential to good group functioning. However, people often feel so uncertain about the worth of their ideas that they are reluctant to share them openly with the group. One way to get people participating is to talk openly yourself. By opening up to the group you are providing a model of participation for others to follow. But don't do all the talking; invite others to react to what you've said.

Bad: (avoiding eye contact and saying nothing)

Bad: (talking nonstop so others can't get a word in edgewise)

Good: "I think each of us should do web searches on two questions. What do you think, Jill?"

Admit vulnerabilities. If you are willing to admit doubts, uncertainty, confusion, and frustration, this gives permission to others to do the same. It can be quite a relief to find out that you are not the only person in the group with negative feelings. Ideally, someone will eventually help those with problems toward resolutions.

Bad: "Yeah, I found a web site that answers question four."

Good: "I'm not sure what question four is really asking. I found a site with the keyword for that question but I don't know if it is a good answer."

Maintain optimism. One can go overboard on sharing negative feelings to a point where the entire group wallows in self-pity. Recognize and validate negative feelings, but express hope and optimism about the situation.

Bad: "We don't have any sites for half the questions. We're never gonna get them done and we're all going to flunk this project."

Good: "It's been frustrating looking so long without results for the last four questions. But we have the first four done, and I know we are just as far along as most of the other groups."

Suggest rather than order. To get things accomplished, some group leaders attempt to impose their own decisions on the group. This can save time but it can also cause resentments. Rephrasing an order as a suggestion can make it more acceptable. Tone of voice is important here: A suggestion directed with a stern, demanding voice can come across as an order.

Bad: "I say we meet at lunchtime this Friday."

Good: "How about if we meet at lunchtime this Friday?"

Listen attentively. This is one of the most important but one of the most difficult supportive skills. We tend to get so caught up in our own thoughts and what we want to say that we don't give full attention to others who are talking. An attentive listener makes eye contact, focuses on the speaker, and refrains from interrupting and from judging. An attentive listener picks up feeling tones (anger, irritation, excitement, boredom, etc.) as well as the content of the message. An attentive listener can rephrase in his or her own words what was said and also identify what the speaker is feeling.

Bad: "Huh?"

Good: "What I hear you saying, Fran, is that you are worried that the first Wundt web site has too many irrelevant details to use as an answer to the question."

Check and clarify. If, while listening attentively, you are not sure what someone meant, check to see if you got the point by restating it in your own words (see example above). Or, simply ask for clarification. An observant person will also notice when other members of the group are not getting something and will ask them if they need the speaker to clarify.

Bad: "I know what you mean" [when person really doesn't].

Good: "Pat, are you saying the site doesn't exist any more or that you can't get through to the address now?"

Criticize ideas, not people. When you do not like what someone says, try to focus criticism on the idea rather than the person. If possible, try to find and mention a good intention behind the idea.

Bad: "You are really ignorant for expecting us to have this ready by Friday."

Good: "I know you are trying to make sure we get this done on time, Sandy, but I don't think we can get to the computer lab often enough to finish it by Friday."

Appendix E: Contents of Eudora Mailbox Containing All Responses from Group A

From ???@??? Thu Oct 10 22:29:03 1996

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Date: Thu, 10 Oct 1996 16:44:52 -0400

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To: j5j@psu.edu

From: jes257@psu.edu (Jeanette Ellen Snyder)

Dear Dr. Johnson

Here are my answeres to the eight questions, I am in group A.

1) According to the web site: http://www.nmu.edu./psychology/defin.htm,

psychology is defined as the scientific study of the behavior of humans and

animals. They explain that psychologists use scientific methods in an

attempt to understand and predict behavior, develop procedures for changing

behavior, and also evaluate treatment strategies.

2) According to David J Chalmers

(http://www.artxci.wustl.edu/~philos/papers chalmer.biblio3.html#3.10) an

adequate psychological explanation is a fuctional analysis, not a causal

subsumption on interpretation, computation, and an analysis of cognition and

intentionality.

3) There are many different fields of psychology and I choose these three

from site http://chimera.bps.org.uk/careers.gencar.htm to talk about.

Eduational psychology, dealing with learning difficulties and social and

emotional problems in schools, colleges, nurseries, special units and

clients homes. The psychologist deals with teachers as well as students and

their parents to provide them with help in coping with the stress that

school can cause. Health psychologists, This is a relatively new field of

applied psychology that deals with helping promote change in peoples

attitudes, behavior, and the way they think about their health. Teachers of

psychology which are the professors and teachers found in our schools and

universities.

4) According to site http://www.massey.ac.nz/~alock/cole/cole.htm basic

psychology was looking at various topics. Nature of preferences and

problems of external valadity in research was the beginning and then later

people realized that basic psychology was simply learning to learn, and not

actually becoming involved.

5) According to site http://www.ps.cus.umist.ac.uk/~vivaldi/idual.html the

history of applied psychology has three roots: Psychiatry, social

philosophy, and psychological testing. Studying human nature and mental

disorders changes the way people studied applied psychology. Also the

development of assessment testing helped catoragize people and determine

their status.

6) Psychological experiments, according to site

http://www.apa.org/journals/age696ab/html add to what we know by explaing a

project and completing the research to prove a theory. An example:

Psychologistes proved a theory on divided attention by running memory tests

and other reaction tune tests.

7) According to site

http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/tutorila/parapi/parapi2.htm, many

psychologist believe that the best policy is observing a persons behavior.

Many believe that to identify a persons problem you need to first run tests

or have them evaluated, but sometimes the best thing to do is just watch the

person and not give them a reason to act differently.

8) There are many different dualism in psychology, and psychologists tend

to focus on one side more than the other because of his/her knowledge of the

subject. I chose these from site

http://sunl.iusb.edu/~lzynda/descartes.html to discuss. Basic psychology

focuses on acquiring knowledge for the sake of knowing rather than applying

what you know to solving a problem, like applied psychology. Basic

psycholgists do this because they understand their side of the spectrum better.

 

From ???@??? Thu Oct 10 22:29:08 1996

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Date: Thu, 10 Oct 1996 16:37:30 -0400

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To: j5j@psu.edu

From: jes257@psu.edu (Jeanette Ellen Snyder)

Subject: Re: Annotated sites Group A

Dear Dr. Johnson here are the annotated www sites for group A.

1) http://www.nmu.edu/psychology/defin.htm

This site was created by the University of Michigan students and

faculty. They broke down the definition of psychology and gave

many areas of psychology.

2) http://www.artxci.Wustl.edu/~philos/papers.chalmer.biblio3.html#3.10

This site was created by David J. Chalmers from the Department of

Philosopyt at Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. This site talks about

what David chalmers psychological explination is, and also includes the

title to his book.

3) http://chimera.bps.org.uk/careers/gencar.htm

This site was created by The British Psychological Society. It

explains the many different fields of psychology and what is done in

them.

4) http://www.massey.ac.nz/~alock/cole/cole.htm

This site is an article reprinted from American Psychologist. It

Discusses in some part the history of psychology.

4)http://paradigm.soci.brocku.ca/CourseNotes/PSYC331/StudyTools/Student

Contributions/dtfillio.html

This site was created by a guy named George from the Department of

Sociology in Ontario, Canada. This page gave some importanat historical

events that influenced the way basic psychology is conducted today.

5) http://www.ps.cus.umist.ac.uk/~vivaldi/i/dual.html

this site was created by a group of psychologists that explain what

applied psychology is and the historical events that took place.

6) http://www.apa.org/journals/age696ab.html

This site was created by Martin Redingtion and Nick Chater; both

from the University of Edinbugh. This site explains the experiments

in psychology that add to what we already know.

7) http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/tutorila/parapi/parapi2.htm

This site discusses a non-experimental design used to field test the

compensatory education program and secondary school systems. It also

discusses research designs.

8) http://sunl.iusb.edu/~lzynda/descartes.html

This site discusses "Dexcarte's Mind Body Dualism". He apparently

was interested in whether ther were truths of which one could be

absolutely certain.

 

From ???@??? Fri Oct 11 14:40:59 1996

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To: j5j@psu.edu

From: dms301@psu.edu (Dodie Marie Stephens)

Subject: Annotations and answers to my 8 questions. Group A

Dodie Stephens

October 11, 1996

Psychology 02

Web project - Group A Annotation

1) http://www.nmu.edu/psychology/defin.htm

This site was created by the University of Michigan students and

faculty. They broke down the definition of psychology and gave many areas

of psychology.

2) http://www.artxci.Wustl.edu/~philos/papers.chalmer.biblio3.html#3.10

This site was created by David J. Chalmers from the Department of

Philosophy at Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. This site talks about

what David chalmers psychological explanation is, and also includes the

title to his book.

3) http://chimera.bps.org.uk/careers/gencar.htm

This site was created by The British Psychological Society. It

explains the many different fields of psychology and what is done in them.

4) http://www.massey.ac.nz/~alock/cole/cole.htm

This site is an article reprinted from American Psychologist. It

discusses in some part the history of psychology.

http://paradigm.soci.brocku.ca/coursenotes/psyc331/studytools/student/

contributions/dtfillio.html

This site was created by a guy named George from the department of

sociology in Ontario, Canada.

This page gave some important historical events that influenced the way

basic psychology is conducted today.

5) http://www.ps.cus.umist.ac.uk/~vivaldi/idual.html

This site was created by a group of psychologists that explain what

applied psychology is and the historical events that took place.

6) http://www.apa.org/journals/age696ab.html

This site was created by Martin Redingtion and Nick Chater; both

from the University of Edinbugh. This site explains the experiments is

psychology that add to what we already know.

7) http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/tutorila/parapi/parapi2.htm

This site discusses a non-experimental design used to field test the

compensatory education program and secondary school systems. It also

discusses research designs.

8) http://sunl.iusb.edu/~lzynda/descartes.html

This site discusses "Descarte's Mind Body Dualism". He apparently

was interested in whether there were truths of which one could be absolutely

certain.

 

 

Dodie Stephens

October 10, 1996

Psychology 02

Web project- group A

1. According to web site: http://www.nmu.edu/psychology/defin.htm

psychology is defined as the scientific study of the behavior of the humans

and animals. The scientific methods used by psychologists help to understand

the behaviors, to develop procedures for the altering of behaviors, and to

determine possible treatments. People have different opinions about what

psychology is since there are so many different perspectives to look at.

2. According to David J. Chalmer at site

http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~philos/papers/chalmers.biblio.3.html#3.10 an

adequate psychological explanation is a functional analysis of

interpretation, the process of computing, and a clear perception of

objective or intent.

3. The following fields of psychology were chosen from

http://chimera.bps.org.uk/careers/gencar.htm. Educational psychologists deal

with learning difficulties along with social and emotional problems in

schools, nurseries, and clients' homes. They deal with teachers as well as

students and their parents to provide them with further insight to help them

cope with stress. Health psychologists help promote change in peoples

attitudes, behavior, and the way they think about their health. The teachers

of psychology are found in our schools as the professors and teachers.

4. According to site http://www.massey.ac.nz/~alock/cole/cole.htm, the

nature of preferences and problems of external validity in research began

and then people realized basic psychology was simply learning to learn and

not becoming involved.

5. According to the site http://www.ps.cus.umist.ac.uk/~vivaldi/idual.html

the history of applied psychology has three roots. They are psychiatry,

social philosophy, and psychological testing. The studying of human nature

and mental disorders changes the way people study applied psychology. The

development of assessment testing helps categorize people and determine

their status.

6. Site http://www.apa.org/journals/age696ab/html states that psychological

testing adds to what we already know about explaining a project and

completing research to prove a theory. A good example would be when a

psychologist proves a theory by dividing attention by running memory tests

and other reaction tune tests.

7. According to site

http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/tortila/parapi/parapi2.htm it is believed

by many psychologists that the best policy is observing a persons behavior.

Also to identify a persons problem you need to first run tests or have them

evaluated, but sometimes it is better to watch the person and not give them

a reason to act differently.

8. The site http://sunl.iusb.edu/~lzynda/descartes.html expresses the fact

that there are many different dualisms in psychology, and psychologists tend

to focus on one side more than the other because of their specific knowledge

on that certain side. Basic psychology focuses on acquiring knowledge for

the sake of knowing rather than applying what you already know to help solve

the problem as in applied psychology. Basic psychologists do this because

they have a better understanding of their own side.

 

From ???@??? Sat Oct 12 07:14:28 1996

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Date: Sat, 12 Oct 1996 07:11:40 -0400

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To: j5j@psu.edu

From: ashok <anh115@psu.edu> (by way of j5j@psu.edu (John A. Johnson))

Subject: ashok hariharan Group A

Dear Dr Johnson,

Here is the project That our group (A) did. I am sending it to you

as an attachment file, in a microsoft works format.

Thank you

Ashok Hariharan

Attachment Converted: C:\DOWNLOAD\PSYCPROJ.WKS

Ashok Hariharan

Psych 2

10-11-96

Psychology Research Project

1) According to the web site: Http://www.nmu.edu/psychology/defin.htm

psychology is defined as the scientific study of the behavior of the humans

and animals. They explain that psychologists use scientific methods in an

attempt to understand and predict behavior, develop procedures for changing

behavior, and also evaluate treatment strategies.

2) (Http://www.artxci.wustl.edu/~philos/papers chalmer.biblio3.html#3.10)

David J.Chalmers says that "an adequate psychological explanation is a

functional analysis, not a causal subassumption on interpretation,

computation, and an analysis of cognition and intentionally."

3) (Http://Chimers.bps.org.uk/careers.gencar.htm) this site talks about

three different fields of psychology; educational psychology- deals with

people with learning difficulties and social and emotional problems in

schools, colleges, nurseries, special units and clients homes. A

psychologist; deals with people and help them in coping with the stress and

other difficulties. Health psychologists, this is a relatively new field of

applied psychology it deals with helping people feel good about themselves

and their physique. Teachers of psychology; which are the professors and

teachers found in our schools and universities.

4) According to the sit Http://www.massey.ac.nz/~alock/cole/cole.htm Basic

psychology is just the plain science of psychology. The major events that

affected basic psychology are mentioned in the site

(http://paradigm.soci.brocku.ca/~lward/TIME/time_psy.html). This site just

lists all the important events that affected psychology in general.

5) According to the site Http://www.ps.cus.umist.ac.uk/~vivaldi/idual.html

the history of applied psychology has three roots: Psychiatry, social

philosophy, and psychological testing. Studying human nature and mental

disorders changed the way people studied applied psychology. Also the

development of assessment testing helped categorize people and determine

their status.

6) Psychological testing according to the site

(Http;//www.apa.org/journals/age696ab/html) add to what we know as

hypothesis and testing hypothesis to prove or disprove a theory. An

Example: Psychologists proved a theory on divided attention by running

memory tests and other reaction tune tests.

7) According to the site

Http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/tortila/parapi/parapi2.htm, Many

psychologists believe that the best policy is observing a persons behavior.

Many believe that to identify a persons problem you need to first run tests

or have them evaluated, but sometimes the best thing to do is just watch the

person act in his natural surroundings with normal circumstances.

8) there are many different dualism's in psychology, and psychologists tend

to focus on one side more than the other because of their knowledge on that

particular subject. the site (Http://sunl.iusb.edu/~lzynda/descartes.html)

discusses this aspect in psychologists. Basic psychology focuses on

acquiring knowledge for the sake of knowing; rather than applying what you

know to solving a problem. Applied psychology on the other hand deals with

the testing of people to identify their problems and correcting them.

People concentrate on one side more because it is just easier to do so.

 

From ???@??? Mon Oct 14 13:51:23 1996

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Date: Mon, 14 Oct 1996 12:42:42 -0400

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From: mdc190@psu.edu (Maria Dawn Chilcote)

Subject: psychology paper

Maria Chilcote

ANSWERS TO THE EIGHT QUESTIONS

1. According to the web site created by the students of the University of

Michigan (http://www.nmu.edu/psychology/defin.htm), psychology is the study

of people: how they think, how they react and interact. Psychology is

concerned with all aspects of behavior and the thoughts, feelings and

motivation underlying such behavior. Or the science of behavior and mental

processes. This includes scientific methods involving observation,

measurement, hypothesis testing, experimentation and logical inference, and

the use of statistics to test the significance of research findings.

Psychology can also be defined as the study of mind and experience. These

people don't believe psychology is a science. The reason so many people

have different opinions on what psychology is, is because psychologists all

have many different perspectives on studying human behavior.

2. According to the web site created by David J. Chalmers from the

Department of Philosophy at Washington University

((http://www.artxci.Wustl.edu/~phillos/papers.chalmer.biblio3.html#3.10), a

psychological explanation is usually by functional analysis, not casual

subsumption. It is on interpretation, computation and an analysis of

cognition and intentionally.

3. According to the web site

(http://chimera.bps.org.uk/careers/gencar.htm), created by The British

Psychological Society, the different fields of psychology are grouped under

three main areas: applied research, human services, and experimental

psychology. Applied research psychologists may do pure research which aims

simply at a better understanding of human behavior, while others working in

commercial organizations may be researching topics of direct relevance to

their employers. All research psychologists use their research to solve

everyday practical problems. Applied research can be subdivide into: health

psychologists, educational psychologists, behavioral medicine psychologist,

forensic psychologists, engineering psychologists, industrial psychologists

and sports psychologists. Another area of psychology is human services.

Psychologists in this area work in hospitals, community settings, schools,

counseling organizations and business organizations. They work directly

with the people. It can be subdivided into clinical psychology, which deals

with people who have mental health problems or severe learning difficulties.

Another group of human services is counseling psychologists who aim to help

people improve their sense of well-being, alleviate distress, resolve their

crises and increase their ability to solve problems and make decisions for

themselves. The last group is educational psychologists who tackle the

problems encountered by young people in education, which may involve

learning difficulties and social or emotional problems. The final area of

psychology is experimental psychology. These psychologists use a set of

techniques in which they try to identify and understand the basic elements

of behavior and mental processes of living things. They use these

techniques to improve a specific situation. The groups of experimental

psychology are cognitive, social, physiological and developmental.

Psychology can be found in many areas of life.

4. According to the web site reprinted from American Psychologist

(http://www.massey.ac.nz/~alock/cole/cole.htm), we find the beginning of

basic psychology in the work of Gustav Theodor Fechner. Between 1851 and

1860, he worked out the rationale for measuring sensation indirectly,

developed three basic psychophysical methods and carried out the classical

experiments on visual distances and visual brightness. HE also formed first

two volumes of Elemente, where he established an exact science of the

functional relationship between physical and mental phenomena. He also

formulated his famous principle that the intensity of a sensation increases

as the log of the stimulus (S=KlogR), to characterize outer psychophysical

relations. Even though the philosophical message was ignored by most, its

methodological and empirical contributions were not. He was also a great

mathematician and his impact on scientists was more scientific than

metaphysical. He demonstrated the potential for experimental exploration of

the phenomenology of sensory experience and established psychophysics as one

of the core methods of the newly emerging scientific psychology. In 1862

Wilhelm Wundt began a study of sense perception which led to the emergence

of his plan for an experimental psychology. He rejected a metaphysical

foundation and argued for the need to transcend the limitations of the

direct study of consciousness through the use of genetic, comparative,

statistical, historical, and particularly, experimental methods. Herman

Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz wrote two works that together defined the

problematic for the experimental psychology of visual and auditory

perception for decades to follow. But it was Wundt who out did them all by

establishing the first psychology laboratory in 1879.

5. According to the web site created by a group of psychologists

(http://www.ps.cus.umist.ac.uk/~vivaldi/i/dual.html), a part of applied

psychology is psychiatry or psychodynamic perspective. It assumes that a

thorough understanding of human behavior requires "mentalism," or the

consideration of mental events. They believe in relative importance of

unconscious motivation. The intellectual force behind the psychodynamic

perspective is Sigmund Freud, whose collected works comprise 24 volumes.

Freud's thinking was influenced by Aristotle, Darwin, Goethe, and by his

study in France of hypnosis with the renowned neurologist, Jean-Martin

Charcot. Freud's views were based on observations of patients in his

practice of psychotherapy. IN that practice he tried to discover the

influence of unconscious process. His studies with Charcot acquainted him

with the use of hypnosis in the treatment of hysteria. Eventually Freud

renounced the clinical use of hypnosis in favor of psychoanalysis, a

therapeutic technique based on free association, in which the patient is

required to say, without censorship, everything that comes to mind, while

the is wide awake. Psychoanalysis remains an important technique for the

treatment of psychopathology today. Another part of applied psychology is

psychological testing. Modern testing of intellectual capacity is founded

on the materials devised by Alfred Binet and Theophile Simon in the early

twentieth century. Binet's work was originally conducted to expand

educational opportunities. His materials and instructions were translated

into many different languages. The American version was prepared by Lewis

Terman at Stanford University and came known as the Stanford-Binet. It is

the most widely used individual test of intelligence.

6. According to the web site created by Martin Redington and Nick Cahter

from the University of Edinburgh

(http://www.apa.org/journals/age696ab.html), experiments can give us a

deeper understanding or provide additional information by doing a test or

experiment on something we already know. They can also help us predict when

certain behaviors will occur. It permits reliable inferences about the

causes of behavior.

7. According to the web site

(http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/tutorial/parapi2.htm), nonexperimental

research can give us a better understanding of a person's or animal's

behavior by just observing them. To get the best results you observe them

without them knowing it, so they will not act differently. You can also

evaluate them by giving them a test or interview.

8. According to the web site (http://sunl.iusb.edu/~lzynda/descartes.html),

the dualism of mind/body, people consider the mind to be fundamentally

different from, and separate from the body. These people are called

dualists. People who in contrast believe that mind and body are not

separate are called monists. The reason psychologists would focus on one

side of the dualism is simply because this is what that person believes is

true. Maybe this person came to the conclusion through experiments or

through studying what other people had viewed and believed.

 

From ???@??? Mon Oct 14 18:14:31 1996

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To: j5j@psu.edu

From: mdc190@email.psu.edu (Maria)

Subject: annotations for psychology paper

>Maria Chilcote

LIST OF ANNOTATED WWW SITES FOR GROUP A

>>

>>1) http://www.nmu.edu/psychology/defin.htm

>> This site was created by the University of Michigan students and

>>faculty. They broke down the definition of psychology and gave

>>many areas of psychology.

>>

>>2) http://www.artxci.Wustl.edu/~philos/papers.chalmer.biblio3.html#3.10

>> This site was created by David J. Chalmers from the Department of

>>Philosopyt at Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. This site talks about

>>what David chalmers psychological explination is, and also includes the

>>title to his book.

>>

>>3) http://chimera.bps.org.uk/careers/gencar.htm

>> This site was created by The British Psychological Society. It

>>explains the many different fields of psychology and what is done in

>>them.

>>

>>4) http://www.massey.ac.nz/~alock/cole/cole.htm

>> This site is an article reprinted from American Psychologist. It

>>Discusses in some part the history of psychology.

>>4)

http://paradigm.soci.brocku.ca/coursenotes/psyc331/studytools/student/contri

butions/dtfillio.html

This site was created by a guy named george from the department of sociology

in ontario, canada. This page gave some important historical events that

influednced the way basic psychology is conducted today.

>>5) http://www.ps.cus.umist.ac.uk/~vivaldi/i/dual.html

>> this site was created by a group of psychologists that explain what

>>applied psychology is and the historical events that took place.

>>

>>6) http://www.apa.org/journals/age696ab.html

>> This site was created by Martin Redingtion and Nick Chater; both

>>from the University of Edinbugh. This site explains the experiments

>>in psychology that add to what we already know.

>>

>>7) http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/tutorila/parapi/parapi2.htm

>> This site discusses a non-experimental design used to field test the

>>compensatory education program and secondary school systems. It also

>>discusses research designs.

>>

>>8) http://sunl.iusb.edu/~lzynda/descartes.html

>> This site discusses "Dexcarte's Mind Body Dualism". He apparently

>>was interested in whether ther were truths of which one could be

>>absolutely certain.

 

 

From ???@??? Mon Oct 14 18:14:56 1996

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Date: Mon, 14 Oct 1996 14:21:45 -0400

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To: j5j@psu.edu

From: csn109@psu.edu (Christopher S Neil)

Subject: Psy project

List of Sites:

1) Http://www.nmu.edu/psychology/defin.htm. This site was created by

university of Northern Michigan students and faculty. They broke down the

definition of psychology and gave many areas of psychology.

2)Http://www.artxci.wustl.edu/~Philos/Papers.Chalmer.Biblios.Html#3.10. This

site was created by David J. Chalmers from the Department of Philosophy at

Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. This site gave a psychological

explanation from an author named R. Cummins who wrote a book called "The

Nature of Psychological Explanation."

3) Http://Chimera.Bps.org.uk/careers/Gencar.Htm. This site was created by

the British Psychological Society. It explains the many different fields of

Psychology and what is done in them.

4) Http://paradigm.soci.brocku.ca/~/ward/Time/time_psy.html. This site was

created by a guy named George from the Department of Sociology in Ontario,

Canada. This page gave some important hestorical events that influenced the

way basic psychological science is conducted today.

5) Http://www.ps.cus.umist.Ac.uk/~Vivaldi/I/Dual.Html. This site was

created by a group of psychologists that explain what applied psychology is

and the historical events that took place.

6) Http://www.apa.org/journals/age696ab.html. This site was created by

Martin Redington and Nick Chater: Both from the University of Edinbugh.

This site explains the experiments in psychology that add to what we already

know.

7) Http://Trochim.human.cornell.idu/tutorila/parapi/parapi2.htm. This sete

discusses a nonexperimental design used to field test the compensatory

education program and secondary school systems. It also discusses research

designs.

8) Http://sunl.Iusb.edu/~Lzynda/descartes.html. This discusses "descarte's

mind body Dualism." He apparently was interested in whether there were

truths of which one could be absolutely certain.

 

Answers to eight questions:

1) According to the web site maintained by the University of Northern

Michigan (http://www.nmu./psychology/psychhm.htm), Psychology is the

scientific study of the behavior of humans and animals using scientific

methods. The part PSYCH meaning - life, spirit, soul, self: and the part

OLOGY meaning - doctrine, theory, science. People have different opinions

about psychology because their are many areas of psychology, each trying to

explain the behavior of people and amimals from a slightly different

perspective.

2) According to the web site maintained by David J. Chalmers

(http://www.artxci.wustle.edu/philos/papers.Chalmer.biblio3.html#3.10), he

gave a list of authors and the books that they wrote about different

psychology subjects. A book, "The Natere of Psychological Explanation",

written by R. Cummins, said that a psychological explanation is typically

via functional analysis, not casual subsumption. Also included in the

book,interpretation, computation, and an analysis of cognition and

intentionality.

3) According to the web site maintained by the British Psychological

Society (http://Chimera.bps.uk/careers/Cencar.htm), it gave different fields

of psychology. For instance, Clinical Psychologist work in various

hospitals with people with health problems or with severe learning

difficulties. Another feild was a Counseling Psychologist which aims to

help people improve their sense of well-being, and increase their ability to

solve problems and make decisions for themselves. Educational Psychologist

take on the problems encountered by young people in education, which may be

learning difficulties or some social or emotional problems. Health

Psychologist deal with changes in peoples attitudes, behavior and thinking

about health. The site gave more than these few examples.

4) According to the web site maintained by the Department of Sociology

(http://paradigm.soci.brocku.ca/~/ward/time_psy.html), it gave some

important historical events that influenced the way basic psychological

science is conducted today. For instance in 1850, Gustav Fechner ignited

psychophysical experimentation. Also in 1850 Herman von Helmholtz measured

the rate of nerve impulses in frogs, demonstrating that neutral processes

are extended in time. And in 1879 William Wundt established the first

psychological laboratory at Leipzig University.

5) The history of applied Psychology has three historical roots. One being

Psychiatry, which is the treatment of mental disorders. An early

psychiatrist was Jean-Martin Charcot(French). Social Philosophy is another

root. Social Philosophy deals with questions about human nature. The

answers have implications for confronting human problems such as war and

poverty. Psychological Testing Movement, which is the measurement of human

traits, is the last root. Alfred Binet developed procedures to identify

slow learners. The people in this root were interested in human assessment.

Alfred Bint's ideas were used by Lewis Terman to create the Stanford-Binet

I.Q. test.

6) According to the web site (http://www.apa.org/Journals/Age696ab.html),

Psychological testing can add to what we already know by common sense by

explaining a project and completing research to prove a theory. At this

site, Psychologist proved a theory on divided attention. They did this by

running memory test and other reaction tune test.

7) According to the web site

(http://Trochim.Human.Cornell.edu/Tutorila/Parapi/Parapi2.htm), the

psychologist here believe that the best policy is observing a persons

behavior. They believe that to see a persons problem you need to run test

or have them evaluated, but nonexperimental research involves "taking things

as they are" instead of manipulating the situation. Most importantly, just

watch and take notes, observe what the person does naturally.

8) There are different dualisms in psychology. Psychologist seem to focus

on one side of the dualism more than the other because of their experience

or knowledge of the subject. I'm going to talk about the dualism between

applied/basic goals. Applied Psychology explanations rely more on words,

rather than numbers in Basic Psychology. Also, Applied Science is acquiring

knowledge to solve specific problems where as basic science is acquiring

knowledge for the sake of knowing.

 

From ???@??? Mon Oct 14 18:56:11 1996

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Date: Mon, 14 Oct 1996 18:53:35 -0400

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To: j5j@psu.edu

From: anh115@psu.edu (ashok hariharan) (by way of j5j@psu.edu (John A. Johnson))

Subject: SORRY SENDING AGAIN!

Dear Dr. Johnson,

I am sending my project again as I had to edit it. Sorry It comes

as a MSworks file.

Thankyou

Ashok

 

Attachment Converted: C:\DOWNLOAD\PSYCPROJ.WKS

Ashok Hariharan

Psych 2

10-11-96

Psychology Research Project

1) According to the web site: Http://www.nmu.edu/psychology/defin.htm

psychology is defined as the scientific study of the behavior of the humans

and animals. They explain that psychologists use scientific methods in an

attempt to understand and predict behavior, develop procedures for changing

behavior, and also evaluate treatment strategies.

2) (Http://www.artxci.wustl.edu/~philos/papers chalmer.biblio3.html#3.10)

David J.Chalmers says that "an adequate psychological explanation is a

functional analysis, not a causal subassumption on interpretation,

computation, and an analysis of cognition and intentionally."

3) (Http://Chimers.bps.org.uk/careers.gencar.htm) this site talks about

three different fields of psychology; educational psychology- deals with

people with learning difficulties and social and emotional problems in

schools, colleges, nurseries, special units and clients homes. A

psychologist; deals with people and help them in coping with the stress and

other difficulties. Health psychologists, this is a relatively new field of

applied psychology it deals with helping people feel good about themselves

and their physique. Teachers of psychology; which are the professors and

teachers found in our schools and universities.

4) According to the sit Http://www.massey.ac.nz/~alock/cole/cole.htm Basic

psychology is just the plain science of psychology. The major events that

affected basic psychology are mentioned in the site

(http://paradigm.soci.brocku.ca/~lward/TIME/time_psy.html). This site just

lists all the important events that affected psychology in general.

5) According to the site Http://www.ps.cus.umist.ac.uk/~vivaldi/idual.html

the history of applied psychology has three roots: Psychiatry, social

philosophy, and psychological testing. Studying human nature and mental

disorders changed the way people studied applied psychology. Also the

development of assessment testing helped categorize people and determine

their status.

6) Psychological testing according to the site

(Http://www.apa.org/journals/age696ab/html) add to what we know as

hypothesis and testing hypothesis to prove or disprove a theory. An

Example: Psychologists proved a theory on divided attention by running

memory tests and other reaction tune tests.

7) According to the site

Http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/tortila/parapi/parapi2.htm, Many

psychologists believe that the best policy is observing a persons behavior.

Many believe that to identify a persons problem you need to first run tests

or have them evaluated, but sometimes the best thing to do is just watch the

person act in his natural surroundings with normal circumstances.

8) there are many different dualism's in psychology, and psychologists tend

to focus on one side more than the other because of their knowledge on that

particular subject. the site (Http://sunl.iusb.edu/~lzynda/descartes.html)

discusses this aspect in psychologists. Basic psychology focuses on

acquiring knowledge for the sake of knowing; rather than applying what you

know to solving a problem. Applied psychology on the other hand deals with

the testing of people to identify their problems and correcting them.

People concentrate on one side more because it is just easier to do so.

 

ANNOTATIONS

1) Http://www.nmu.edu/psychology/defin.htm

2) Http://www.artxci.wustl.edu/~philos/papers chalmer.biblio3.html#3.10

3) Http://Chimers.bps.org.uk/careers.gencar.htm

4)Http://www.massey.ac.nz/~alock/cole/cole.htm (AND)

http://paradigm.soci.brocku.ca/~lward/TIME/time_psy.html

5) Http://www.ps.cus.umist.ac.uk/~vivaldi/idual.html

6)Http://www.apa.org/journals/age696ab/html

7) Http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/tortila/parapi/parapi2.htm

8) Http://sunl.iusb.edu/~lzynda/descartes.html

 

Appendix F

Directions for rating members of your group:

First, find your group. You will be rating only the students in your own group. Find your name and circle it. In the example below, Ima Saint is doing the ratings so she has circled her name. You will not assign any points to yourself. Notice that Ima has left the box for points next to her name blank.

Next, consider whether a group member showed any of the positive or negative group behaviors listed in the vertical columns. Place a checkmark in each box you think describes that personís behavior. In the example below, Ima thought Joe Blow tended to not show up for meetings, not do the work expected of him, and didnít respect group members, so she checked those boxes. The purpose of this checking is to focus your memory on how positive or negative each group memberís behavior was to help you decide how many points to give him or her. No student will see the individual marks you give outóonly the average number of points from the entire group. If you remember other positive or negative things about the person you may use those thoughts to help you decide how many points to give. Notice that Ima gave Joe Blow only 2 points.

The total number of points you give should add up to the number in the box next to "Should add up to." This number will be (the number of people in your group minus one) times ten. There are eight people in Imaís group, so her point total must add up to 70.

If you remember someone being in your group but the personís name is not listed, this is because they dropped out of the course.