Beyond Quarrying: Lithic Quarry Activities in Quartzite, Jasper, and Rhyolite
Michael B. Barber
George Washington and Jefferson National Forest
MBBarber@aol.com
George A. Tolley
George Washington and Jefferson National Forest
Work on lithic extraction sites in the Virginia Blue Ridge over the last decade has suggested that numerous activities were carried at the quarry beyond quarrying.  Tool types, expedient of otherwise, indicate work with both hard and soft materials in addition to the expected preliminary lithic reduction.  Seven quarry and quarry related reduction station sites will be discussed, four relating to quartzite (44WY40, 44WY103, 44RB283, and 44AU548), two to jasper (44RB279 and 44RB363), and one to rhyolite (44GY18).  While utilized during different time periods, on-site activities are numerous and not dissimilar. 

The broader distribution of lithic materials is also discussed.  Regional patterns based on the recovery of various lithics over broad areas are examined.  As geologic availability of some materials, particularly jasper and rhyolite, is restricted, the movement of these lithics is of interest.  Finally, settlement pattern modeling will be examined with an eye on lithic patterns.