Anth 146 - Review Concepts - Exam 3-2004 Sp

+ Describe the environments for each culture area for this unit: (Great Basin, California, Northwest Coast, Arctic). For at least two cultures in each area, how did these environmental settings affect:
- subsistence (mobility, agriculture, what do they eat?)
- settlement patterns (settlement size, layout, physiographic setting)
- shelter (what is it made of? Why? Mobility? Advantages/disadvantages in this environment and/or for this lifestyle)
- social structure (status, leadership type/how determined, gender roles, family makeup, slavery)
- religious beliefs, creation stories, and ceremonial practices
- relations with neighbors (warfare, trade, cooperation, marriage)
- impact of Euro-American immigrants
- games

+ In the four regions we examined in this unit, two major cultural traits, pottery and agriculture, are either totally absent or of minimal importance. For each region, why is this? How are these two traits related? Think about alternatives, reasons for adopting agriculture and/or pottery in the first place, environmental factors/resources/carrying capacity/population density/settlement strategy/mobility issues.

+ Trade and exchange is often vital to the survival of societies. What are three unrelated examples of societies that rely on either subsistence exchange with neighbors of a different society, or the long-distance trade of prestige items for the maintenance of differences in social status?

+ Explain the similarities and differences between bands, tribes, and chiefdoms in terms of carrying capacity, mobility, subsistence strategy, population density, threat of violence, leadership/authority/prestige, etc. using examples from Great Basin, California, Northwest Coast, and/or Arctic.

+ It can be argued that, beginning with the arrival of Columbus in 1492, fundamental cultural differences were responsible for the conflicted relations between Native Americans and Euro-American settlers. Discuss these differences in terms of:
- Significance of land/property/resources: what are the reasons for these differences?
- Religion
- Interpretation of “wilderness”
How did these factors result in the policies of the
U.S. government towards Native Americans in the 19th century?
How did each of the major colonial powers (Spain, France, Britain, Russia, United States) relate to the Native American populations? What are some reasons for these differences?

+ Think about the general sequence of the subjugation/assimilation of Native American societies by the U.S. government. When these groups finally regained some autonomy, beginning in the mid-1930's -1950's, they found the difficulties of survival to be greater, and hence their standard of living to be lower than perhaps any other time in their existence. Why was this so? Think about the effects of the Dawes Act, the structure/infrastructure of traditional societies and how it was disrupted by reservation life (subsistence methods, trade, land-use, etc)

+ Different kinds of family systems appear to be adaptive in different kinds of ecological situations. Discuss the conditions under which the nuclear and the extended family appear to be most functional. Similarly, matrilineal and patrilineal systems.