Class Participation Option:

To help students stay engaged with the material covered in class, I am expecting 10 relevant contributions to class discussion from each of you to compose your participation grade for this course. Because many people simply don't feel comfortable speaking in front of their peers or instructor, and since class time is sometimes too limited to call on everybody, I have created an online option to insure that everybody can still earn their share of discussion credit in class:

It will be acceptable to me if students submit TWO essay QUESTIONS (no answers necessary) after that class for possible use on the study guide and/or exam in lieu of participating in class discussion:

- Questions must relate to material covered during the previous class, which the student must have attended. (if you are absent for any reason, you cannot do this assignment for that class)

- Each question should be composed of at least two sentences, so as to focus each question on an issue that can be answered in a 15-20 minute essay on the exams.

- Questions must be emailed to me before the next scheduled class … handwritten copies will not be accepted.

- Only one such assignment may be turned in per class in place of in-class participation (you cannot receive credit for both).


- Each email message (containing the above assignment) is worth one point towards your participation grade. Submissions for multiple classes in the same email will not count for more than one participation point.