Anth 45 - Exam 3  Chapters 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17


Note: As last time, there will be at least 5 questions. However, one chapter may not be represented.

Chapter 11:
1) Explain the difference between the concepts of one's "sex", "gender", "sexual preference", and "sexual behavior" and discuss some of the ways, with examples, that culture affects gender roles. Describe some alternative gender roles in different cultures. What functions might this variation serve?

2) Using examples, discuss some ways in which the impact of technological development and entry into a cash economy has been different for men and women in different cultures. Once again, what is the relationship between gender roles and subsistence? How is this linked with kinship? (matri/patriliny)

Chapter 13:
3) Compare social mobility in the caste system in India with that of the class system in the United States.

4) What is social stratification? What is meant by an "open" verses a "closed" system? What mechanisms can develop that enable an individual in even very rigid systems to increase their status?

5) Define and contrast "prestige", "power", "wealth", and "authority". What are social mechanisms through which each may be increased or decreased? How are each expressed in societies of different complexity, bands, tribes, chiefdoms, states?

Chapter 14:
6) Define "Indigenous peoples". How do they resist cultural domination/extinction in state-level societies? How and why do the states attempt to obliterate these societies?

7) Discuss the three models of immigration.

8) How do states develop? What are two ways states are formed by agglomeration and two ways states are formed out of larger political entities?

Chapter 15:
9) How does "folk religion" differ from "state religion"?

10) How does religion function as a conservative force in societies, maintaining the status quo? Under what conditions might the opposite occur?

11) Shamans and "witches" (male or female) appear to varying degrees in societies at all levels of complexity. Define and discuss the differences between these two. How are both practices used to further an individual's prestige to make them a bigman? Why might practitioners "run in the family"?

Chapter 16:
12) How does "folk art" differ from "high art"? What is "state art"?

13) How are the arts (material objects and/or music, literature, etc.) in foraging societies different from the arts in states? In other words, how can art depend on subsistence? How does the concept of art differ through societies of different complexity?

14) How can art be functional? Think about four different ways.

15) Art forms have connections with supernatural power, as well as the power structure of the society. Discuss some connections between art and power structures, and some of the ways in which art has been used to reflect, maintain, or rebel against power structures, with examples.

16) The role of  the art and the status of "artist" varies from society to society. Discuss this statement, including an explanation of how the Western view of the artist reflects a western value system.

Chapter 17
:
17) Briefly describe three critical processes by which wealth was transferred from Asia, Africa, and the Americas to the nations of Europe.

18) Europe was able to expand into the Americas with relative ease but had much greater difficulty expanding into Asia and Africa. What critical factors account for the relative success of Europeans in the Americas compared with other areas of the world?

19) Some important sources of change in the contemporary world are urbanization, world markets, and nationalism. Define and describe their effects on particular cultures.

20) What are the benefits and problems caused by the presence of multinational corporations in poor countries?

21) What is colonialism? Although first an expression of European imperialism, how is modern day colonialism different? Who is doing the colonizing?

22) How might economic development affect men and women differently? How might this be tied to the impacts of development on subsistence strategies?

23) What is meant by "Cultural Imperialism"? How is it different from colonialism?

24) When two cultures come in contact with each other, what are three examples of constructive and three of destructive interaction?

25) First Contact (film): How did the New Guinea highlanders and the Leahy brothers view each other? What did they each hope to get from the other? How is our laughing at the highlander's use of western goods ethnocentric? how is it relativistic?