Common Pine Tree Features

Pine cone and leaf parts. (A) Inner view of ovulate scale with seed. (B) Outer view of ovulate scale. (C) Winged
seed. (D) Needle. (E) Shoot. (F) Mature seed cone. 

Pines are unique among the conifers in that they have acicular-shaped leaves, commonly called needles. Needles
mostly occur in fascicles of 2 to 8, except Pinus monophyll, in which they usually occur singly. The fascicle
sheath is comprised of bud scales which can be either deciduous or persistent.

The seed cones usually mature in 2 (rarely 3) years. It is comprised of woody cone scales with subtending bracts
spirally arranged around a central axis. The exposed part of a closed cone is called the apophysis. The umbo is
the protuberance on the apophysis. On some pines, the apophysis will be armed with a prickle. Seeds usually
occur in pairs of 2 at the base of the cone scale and can be winged or wingless.