Pine cone and leaf parts. (A) Inner view of ovulate scale with seed.
(B) Outer view of ovulate scale. (C) Winged
seed. (D) Needle. (E) Shoot. (F) Mature seed cone.
The seed cones usually mature in 2 (rarely 3) years. It is comprised
of woody cone scales with subtending bracts
spirally arranged around a central axis. The exposed part of a closed cone is called the apophysis. The umbo is
the protuberance on the apophysis. On some pines, the apophysis will be armed with a prickle. Seeds usually
occur in pairs of 2 at the base of the cone scale and can be winged or wingless.