Lect. #19 World War II and Tibet, 1937 to 1945

I. Introduction
              1. Tolstoy and Dolan
                     - Spies? Diplomats? Allies?

II.
Britain & Tibet: Hugh Richardson (1905-2000)
       A. Early Life
              1. St. Andrews, Scotland
              2. Oxford
              3. 1930: Indian Civil Service (ICS)
                     - 1932-34: Bengal
                           
Tibetan language
                     - Assistant Political Agent Baluchistan (Pakistan)
                            ● Basil Gould
                     - 1935 - Gould appointed as Political Agent for Sikkim, Bhutan and Tibet
                           
● 1936: Richardson appointed as Trade Agent to Gyantse
                            ● August 1936 - February 1937: Political Mission to Lhasa
                                    + Basil Gould, Frederick Spencer Chapman and Evan Nepean
                                    + 6 months

       B. Head of Mission (Lhasa)
              1. Two Terms: 1936-1940; 1947-50
                     - Language
                           
● Tsipon Shakabpa: impeccable. . . slight Oxford accent
                     - Friendships
                           
● Heinrich Harrer, Peter Augschaiter
                     - Protocol
                           
● 14th Panchen Lama
                            ● Travel
                            Off duty: botany, photographer, golf
                     - Astonishing period
                           
Dalai Lama Arrivial (1939)
                            ● Growing International presence
                                    + Overlapped with Chinese (Jiang Zhiyu)
                                    + German expedition (Ernst Schaefer)
                                    + Recalled to India during war
              2. 1946-1950
                     - 1946: Returned to Lhasa as Officer-in-Charge of British Mission
                     - 1947: Appointed by Indian Government
                     - 1950: August leaves Lhasa and ICS

       C. Post-Tibet
              1. Home life
                            St Andrews
                            Huldah Rennie (1951)
                            Golf (Royal and Ancient Golf Club)

              2. Scholar of Tibet
                     - Multiple books and articles
                           
A Cultural History Tibet (1986)
                            ● Ceremonies of the Lhasa Year (1993)
                            ● High Peaks, Pure Earth (1998)
                     - Honors

                            ● Honorary Doctorate: St Andrew's University
                            ● Honorary Fellow British Academy

              3. December 3, 2000

III. Chinese Representatives in Lhasa
       A. Jiang Zhiyu
              1. Chinese School
                     - Mosque
              2. Recalled in 1937
                     - Anti-Japanese War
                     - Zhang Weibai (interim)

       B. Kong Qingzong (1898 - 1978)
              1. Early Live
                     - Sichuan
                     - University of Brussels (Belgium)
                     - Professor (National Sichuan University/National Central University, Nanjing)
              2. Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission
                     - Member of Wu Zhongxin Mission to Lhasa (1940)
                           
        + Enthronement ceremony
                     - Selected to assume the post of "China's Representative to Tibet"
                           
        + Tibet Office of the Tibetan Mongolian Affairs Commission of China
                                    + Foreign or Domestic?
              3. Early Days
                     - Central Government instructions
                     - Imperial propensities
                     - Tibetan Foreign Affairs Bureau established
                           
        + Demanded credentials from all foreigners
                     - Who are Chinese in Lhasa
                           
        + Short-term sojourners
                                    + Koko: Half-Tibetan/Half-Chinese
       C. August 1942 Incident
              1. Koko beating wife
                     - Police intervenes
                     - Assaults police
                     - Arrested and sentenced (100 lashes)
              2. Kong's intervention
                     - New strategy?
                     - Tibetan response: all residents of Lhasa are Tibetan
                     - Sentence applied
                     - Photos

       D. October 1942 Incident
              1. Brawl: Two half-Tibetans
                     - Koko and Khatsara (Half-Nepalese)
                     - 4 Police intervene
                     - Koko sought refuge in Chinese Mission
                     - Kong "arrests" police
                     - 5 months
              2. Tibetan Reaction
                     - Want to avoid International Incident
                     - Revoke government assistance
                           
        + No translator
                                    + No firewood
                                    + No supplies
                     - Demand Kong's recall to Nanjing

       E. Old Ideas and Need for a New Strategy
              1. Kong
                     - Impetuous
                     - Imperious
                     - Wrong-headed

              2. Wellington Koo
                     - Need for a new strategy

       F. New Era
              1. Shen Zonglian
                     - Background:
                                    + Qinghua/Harvard degrees
                                    + Well-oiled network
                                    + Hand-picked team
                                    + Well-connected/Well-financed
                     - August 8, 1944 (Lhasa)
                                    + Conciliatory
                                    + Cash diplomacy
                     - More Chinese Influence?
                                    + Lhasa National Elementary School
                                    + 100 Students:
                                          ~ Majority Muslim Tibetan (Khache)
                                          ~ 10 Chinese
                                          ~ Tibetan and Khatsara

III. Conclusions
       1. Tibet: Chinese or Tibetan
                     -End of war celebrations
                     - 1946: Shen returns to Nanjing
                     - 1949: KMT (Nationalist) officials ejected