Lect. #18 Great Game Politics and Tibet, 1913 to 1937

I. Introduction
              1. Independent Tibet? Autonomous Tibet?
                     - Questions of perspective in an era of confusion

II.
Britain & Tibet
       A. British Officials
              1. Charles Bell (1870-1945)

                     - Indian Civil Service (ICS)
                           
Tibetan language
                     - Political Officer for Sikkim, Bhutan and Tibet
                     - 13th Dalai Lama (1910) - Darjeeling

                            ● Invitation to Lhasa
              2. Britain's restrained attitude
                     - World War I, Economic depression, Imperial lassitude
                           
● Resistance to "Forward School"
                            ● 1920 Bell allowed to Lhasa
              3. Retirement
                     - Publishing
                           
● Tibet: Past and Present (1920)
                            ● The People of Tibet (1928
                            ● The Religion of Tibet (1931)
                     - Final visit to Lhasa
                           
● 1934
                            ● Central Asia, Mongolia, Manchuria, Siberia
                            ● Final book: Portrait of the Dalai Lama (1945)
                     - Legacy

III. China & Tibet

       A. Part of China?
              1. Fractured Political State
                           
Warlord Era (1912-1926) [Map]
                            Nanjing Decade (1927-1937)
                            Anti-Japanese War (1937-1945)
                            Chinese Civil War (1945-1949)
              2. Unity of the Five Races (wuzu gonghe)
                           
Tibetan, Muslim (Hui), Mongolian, Manchu and Han (Chinese)
                           
Ethnicity? Territory? Both?
              3. Nationalists (KMT) under Chiang Kai-shek: 1927-1937
                           
No Chinese official anywhere in central Tibet (1913-1928)
                            Liu Manqing (1906-1941)
                                        - Mixed parentage
                                        - Lhasa --> Darjeeling --> Beijing --> Nanjing
                                        - 1928: Envoy to Tibet
                                        - 1930: Miss Liu -- China's Hero

                            ● Huang Musong (1884-1937)
                                        - Death of 13th Dalai Lama
                                        - 1934: Special Commissioner to Tibet
                                        - Wrong time, Wrong message
                                        - Tibet's response: 10 point Memorandum
                           
Jiang Zhiyu: Wireless Radio Station
                                        - Chinese school
                                        - Chinese students?
                                        - Tibetan Khache (Muslims)
                                        - Tibetan National Assembly (Kashag)

IV. The End or a New Beginning?