Lect. #13  Panchen Lama

I. Introduction (Tibet's Stolen Child)
       A. Popular notions of the Panchen Lama
              1. "As the moon is to the sun"
                     - No. 2
                     - Interlocking recognition
                     - Who selects who?
                               + Golden Urn

       B. Tashilhunpo (Tashi Lhunpo)
              1. Administrative center
                     a. Steward (phyag mdzod/chak dzö)
                                - Equivalent to rank of minister in Lhasa government
                     b. Panchen Lama's dzong (estates) must still provide soldiers to Lhasa

              2. Panchen Lama
                    
                    TASHILHUNPO NUMBERING
                     • #1 KHEDUP GELEK PALZANG
                     • #2 PHENSAWA LOSANG DHONDUP
                     • #3 SONAM CHOGKYI LANGPO
                    CONFENVTIONAL NUMBERING
                     • 1st (4th) Panchen Lama, LOSANG CHOSKYI GYALTZEN (1570-1662)
                     • 2nd (5th) Panchen Lama, LOSANG YESHI (1663-1737)
                     • 3rd (6th) Panchen Lama, PALDEN YESHI (1738-1780)
                     • 4th (7th) Panchen Lama, TENPAI NYIMA (1782-1853)
                     • 5th (8th) Panchen Lama, TENPAI WANGCHUK (1854/55-1882)
                     • 6th (9th) Panchen Lama, TUBTEN CHOSKYI NYIMA (1883-1937)
                     • 7th (10th) Panchen Lama, CHOKY GYALTSEN (1938-1989)


              3. First Panchen Lama
                     a. Lobsang Choky Gyaltsen (1570-1662)

                           - Tutor and close ally of 5th DL
                           - Tashilhunpo as center
                           - When died in 1662, reincarnation search

              4. 20th Century China

                     a. 1924: Divisions between 13th Dalai Lama and 9th Panchen Lama
                           - Lhasa attempting to collect revenue (for their own military modernization reforms)
                     b. Panchen Lama flees to Inner Mongolia
                           - Appointed to KMT (Chinese Nationalist) Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission
                           - Pro-Chinese
                           - Tibet Improvement Party
                     c. New Era
                           - 1935 (December): 13th Dalai Lama dies
                               + 9th Panchen Lama assisted
                               + 3 candidates
                               + Formally recognized as 14th Dalai Lama in 1939 (4 years old)
                           - 1937 (December): 9th Panchen Lama dies
                               + 3 candidates, delayed recognition
                               + Dalai Lama candidate/Ma Bufang & Chinese candidate
                               + 10th Panchen Lama reconized in 1952 (14 years old)

                     d. 10th Panchen Lama
                           - Kumbum Monastery
                           - Supported Ma Bufang and CCP
                           - April 1959: Suppored suppression of 1959 Uprising
                           - 1962: 70,000 Character Petition
                           - 1964: Imprisoned
                           - 1977-82: House arrest
                           - 1979: Married Li Jie (??) Han Chinese woman (granddaughter of PLA general)
                               +Daughter: Yabshi Pan Rinzinwangmo ("Renji")
                           - 1989: Died at age of 51 in Shigatse