Lect. #7  Reincarnation, and the Rise of Tibet

I. Finding the 14th Dalai Lama
       A. 13th Dalai Lama
              1. Last Testament (August 1932)
              2. Signs pointing to the East
                     - direction of body's head
                     - flowers
                     - star-shaped fungus on Potala
                     - auspicious shaped clouds

       B. Search for the 14th Dalai Lama
              1. Regent (Reting Rinpoche)
                     a. Sacred Lake (Lhamo Lhatso)
                            - Ah, Ka, Ma
                            - 3-storied Monastery
                            - Roof with turquoise colored tiles
              2. Three search parties
                     1) Dakpo (to the Southeast of Lhasa)
                     2) Chamdo (capital of Kham)
                     3) Amdo

              3. Third Search party
                     a. 7th Panchen Lama's list
                     b. Village (Takster)
                            - 2 year old boy (Lhamo Dhondrub)
                            - Rosary
                     c. Return visit
                            - Dalai Lama's effects:  rosary, walking stick, prayer drum

              4. 14th Dalai Lama (February 22, 1940)

II. Reincarnation
       A. Gelug-pa and Reincarnation
              1. Early use of reincarnation (succession) in Tibet
                     a. Bodhisattvas
                     b. Reincarnation: different schools - different implications
                            - Sakya-pa:  descent by birth
                            - Kagyu-pa:  transmitted from uncle to nephew
                            - Karma-pa: discovered in child born soon after death of predecessor
              2. Gelug-pa & Karma-pa
                            -
Gendun Drub

       B. Trulku (
tulku) [video]
              1. Incarnate or Reincarnate
                     a. Emanation of one or more specific Tantric deity
                     b. Rebirth of a previous lama
                     c. Both of the above
              2. Emanation & Rebirth
                     a. Rebirth (yangsid)
                     b. trulku (emanation):   some lamas are specifically and permanently emanations of particular Buddhist deities
                            - Avalokiteshvara (Buddha of Compassion [Tib:
Chenrezig; Ch: Guanyin])
                                               ◦ Dalai Lama
                                               ◦ Karmapa

                            -
Amitabha Buddha (Buddha of Boundless Light)
                                               ◦ Panchen Lama
                            - Manjusri (
Buddha of Wisdom & Power [Tib: Jampal Yang; Ch: Wenshu]) [pict]
                                               ◦ Tsongkapa

                            - Vajrapani [pict] (Tib: Channa Dorge)
                            - Less common bodhisattvas in Tibetan Buddhism
                                               ◦ Akasagarbha (Ch. 虚空藏 Xu Kong Zang, Jp. Kokuzo)
                                               ◦ Ksitigarbha (Ch. 地藏 Di Zang, Jp. Jizo)
                                               ◦ Mahasthamaprapta (Ch. 勢至 Shzh, Jp. Seishi)
                                               ◦ Padmasambhava (Tib. Padma Jungne or Guru Rinpoche)
                                               ◦ Samantabhadra (Ch. 普賢 Pu Xian, Jp. Fugen, Tib. Kuntu Zangpo)


              3. Succession process
                            - Lhasa street song

III. Dalai Lama (list)

       A. Background
              1. Formal head of Gelug-pa order:  Abbot of the Ganden Monastery
              2. Dalai Lamas = reincarnations of Gendun Drub (1391-1474)

                     a. Recognized as emanations of Avalokitesvara (Tibetan: Chenrezig; Ch: Guanyin; Jp: Kannon)
              3. Rise of the Yellow Hats
                     a. Tsongkapa (Lobsang Drakpa [b. 1357])
                     b. Moral crusader?

       B 3rd Dalai Lama (1543-1588) -
Sonam Gyatso
              1. Altan Khan bestows title of "Dalai (ocean) Lama"

                     a. Immediately became 3rd Dalai Lama (and retroactively)
              2. Karma-pa (Shigatse)
              3. 4th Dalai Lama (1589-1617) -
Yonten Gyatso

       C. 5th Dalai Lama (1617-1682) -
Ngawang Lobzang Gyatso
              1. 1642 - Shigatse
                       - Dalai Lama = temporal and spiritual rule
                       - Regent
                       - Mongol ally (Gushri Khan)
              2. Qing (Manchu) China visit (1649-1651)

                     a. Increased intervention (or renewal of priest-patron relationship?)
              3. Golden Age of Tibet

       D. 6th Dalai Lama (1684-1706) -
Tsangyang Gyatso
              1. Sangye Gyatso
              2. Revoked vows, womanizing, carousing

              3. Lhazang Khan (Gushri Khan's grandson) deposes Dalai Lama
              4. On way to China dies (1706)
                     a. poem:  Litang (Kham)

       E. 7th Dalai Lama
(1708-1757) - Kalzang Gyatso
              1. Turns to religious emphasis
              2. Qing China influence:  Golden Urn & Ambans

              3. Dies 1757

       F. 8th Dalai Lama
(1758-1804) - Jampal Gyatso
              1. Follows 7th Dalai Lama's religious orientation
              2. 9th - 12th Dalai Lamas all die young:

9th Dalai Lama - Lungtok Gyatso (1805-1815)
10th Dalai Lama - Tsultrim Gyatso (1816-1837)
11th Dalai Lama. - Khedrub Gyatso (1838-1856)
12th Dalai Lama - Trinle Gyatso (1857-1875)

       G. 13th Dalai Lama (1876-1933) - Tubten Gyatso