Lect. # 7 Himalayan Tibet

I. Introduction
 
    A. Himalayan region and Tibet
                 - Ethnographic Tibet (stateless)
                     + Nepal (Mustang)
                     + Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh)
                     + NEFA - Lopa, Monpa, etc.
                 - Ethnographic Tibet (states)
                     + Ladakh
                     + Bhutan
                     + Sikkim
                     + Nepal
     B. Theorizing Tibet

                - Fourth World
                     + Stateless/Nomadic/Non-state actors
                - Zomia
                     + James Scott/Willem van Schendel
                     + Above 300m altitude
                     + SE Asia and beyond
     C. Implications
                - "Five Fingers of Tibet"
                - Evidence
                     + Charles Bell
                     + Mao Zedong's Collected Works
                - Reality
                - Lingering Perceptions


II. Tibet and Himalayan Neighbors
    A. Three Wars
        1. Sino-Gorkha War (1788-92)
              a. PHASE #1: Nepalese (Gorkha) and Tibetan Troops
                 - Treaty of Kerung: annual tribute to Nepal
              b. PHASE #2:
                 - Fuk'anggan (Manchu General)
                 - Treaty of Betrawati
              b. 1244: Sakya Pandita summoned to Godan's court (Gansu)
         2. Dogra War (Sino-Sikh War) 1841-1842

              a. Zorawar Singh
         4. Nepalese Tibetan War
              a. Jan Bahadur invades Tibet
                 - Treaty of Thapathali
                 - Khatsara
                 - Khache and Koko

    B. Lapchak Mission (lo-phyag)
        1. Trienniel Trade Mission
             a. Trade representatives
              b.

III. Conclusion: Power of Himalayan Politics
         1. Tibetan Himalayan Relations (post 1951)
              a. Bhutan, Nepal, Ladakh
              b. Annual tribute (10,000 rupees)