Lect. #5 - Religious Foundations:  Bon & Buddhism

I. Introduction
    A. Religions and Tibet

II. Bon Religion
    A. Origins
        1. Various theories on Bon in Tibet

        2. Bon religion
              a. pre-Buddhist religions
              b. Modern Bon
              c. quasi-Buddhist relgion
         3. Origins of 'native' Tibetan Religion
              a. Shamanistic
              b. Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche (article)

              c.Primary Characteristics
                   1) universal forces active in both humans and the natural world
                   2) divination and exorcism
                   3) Emphasis on uncovering these patterns and acting in accordance with them

    B. Re-constructing 'Tibetan' Buddhism
         1. Re-thinking early Tibetan religions
              a. Logically not chronologically
                   1) not uniform (nor organized)
                   2) common logical progression
              b. traditional version (time line)
                   1) King Lhat'o t'ori (Lha tho Tho ri)
                   2) Songtsen Gampo (
ca. 620–649 )
                   3) Tri'ison Deutsen (
Khri srong lde brtsan) (ca. 750–797)

         2. Broader Implications
Diffusion of Buddhism into Tibet (map)
              b. 'Out of India' Theory
                   1) Shamanistic influences
                   2) Multiple contacts (India, China, Central Asia)

III. Buddhist Definitions
    A. Basic terms
         1. Dharma
         2. Karma

         3. Samsara
         4. Nirvana
         5. Bodhisattva

    B. Tibetan Terms
         1. Dakini (
Tibetan: khandro = sky walker)
         2. Chorten
Om Mani Padme hum (video)
         4. Dorje

    C.Traditional Teachings
         1. Gautama Siddhartha
(Sakyamuni Buddha)
              a. Traditional Story of his life
         2. Teachings
                a. Four Holy Truths
                      • Life is suffering
                      • Suffering arises from desire
                      • To end suffering one must end desire
                      • Can be achieved by 8-Fold Path
                            - Nirvana:  freedom from suffering

                b. Eight Fold Path 
                      • right views
                      • right aspiration
                      • right speech
                      • right conduct
                      • right livelihood
                      • right effort
                      • mindfulness
                      • meditation

         3. "Schools" of Buddhism
              a. Mahayana
              b. Theravada

IV.  Buddhism in Tibet 
    A. Four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism
         1. Nyingma
         2. Kagyu

                   • Karmapa (controversy)
         3. Sakya
         4. Gelug (Geluk)
                   • Dalai Lama
                   • Panchen Lama

    B. "Transformative" Features
         1. Tibetan Physical Environment
              a. temples, mountain cairns, mani-walls, chorten
         2. Deward Walker: non-Centralized states sense of 'sacredness'

         3. Tibet's centralized polity
         4. Dual approach

    C. Tantric (Vajrayāna) Buddhism
         1."Great Time" myth
              a. Buddhas, bodhisattva and tantric deities = "cultural heroes"
              b. Chenrezig (Sanskrit:  Avalokiteśvara; Chinese: Guanyin)
              c. Guru Rinpoche (Padmasambhava)
              d. Marpa, Milarepa and Tsongkapa
         2. Why significant?