HIST 10 - World History to 1500
Lect. # 24


A Colonizer's Model of the World?


    A. European Exceptionalism
        1. Age of Discovery - Age of Exploration 
                • Unique?
                • Singular? 
                • Superior?
        2. 1750: Great Divergence (Kenneth Pomeranz)
        3. Hoa Hakananai'a  - Rapa Nui (Easter Island) - Map #1 / Map #2

II. The Voyagers
    A. Pacific Islanders & Traditional Navigation
        1. Western Descriptions of the Pacific
                • James Cook
                         - Kealakekua Bay (1779)
                         - Tahiti (1774)
                • Thor Heyerdahl (Kon-Tiki)
                • Tupaia (Tupaia's map)

        2. Pacific Navigation: Wayfinding [stick charts]
                • Steering by the Stars
                • Sidereal Compass
                • Daytime Steering ("keeping track")
                • Wave Reading (ocean swell patterns)

  III. Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
        1. Defeat of the Mongols (Yuan Dynasty)
        2. Zheng He (Cheng Ho) [map]
                • Yongle Emperor
                • Treasure Ships (宝船)[comparison]
                • Columbus
                      - Three ships (total = 415 tons)
                      - 3 masts, 4 Sails
                      - 100 men (total)
                •Zheng He
                      - 62 Treasure Ships (plus 100 auxiliary)
                      - 9 masts, 12 sails
                      - 440 feet long by 180 feet wide
                      - 868 civil officials, 26,800 soldiers, 403 centurions, 93 commanders, 2 senior commanders, eunuchs
        3. Seven Voyages 1405-1433
                 • Purposes of Voyages
                      - Yongle's predecessor
                      - Prestige (tribute)
                      - Commerce
                 • Exploration
                       - Eastern Africa (Map: Malindi and Mombasa)
                       - Portuguese Map (1459)

    C. Chinese 'Age of Exploration'
        1. Chinese goals and methods
        2. Why?
                 • Prestige & tribute
                 • Who needs territory?
                 • Junk History: Gavin Menzies

     D. Seven (and last) Voyage (1433)
                 • Inward? 
                 • End of imperial voyages (not private)