HIST10 World Civ
Lect. # 23

1492:  A New World?


IDs:
          Eurocentric diffusionism
          Chinampa
          Incan Roads
          Cahokia
          Pristine Myth
          Tenochtitlan
         

I. Introduction    

II. History Inside Out
    A. Europe as the "Inside"
        1. 'Eurocentric diffusionism'
        2. European Miracle (E.L. Jones)
                • building blocks of modernity must be European
                • Colonialism NOT critical element of modernity
                • Colonialism resulted in modernization

    B. Tunnel of Time
        1. 19th Century
                • Mediterranean-centric
                • Non-Europeans are 'infrahuman'
                • Christians favored over non-Christians

        2. 1900
                • More secular
                • Evolutionary (not Darwinian)
                • First Cro-magnon Man lived in Europe
                • Agriculture "discovered" in Europe
                • Africans = savages; Asians = despotic

        3. Post World War II

                • Enlarged notion of history (as a result of WWII)
                • More inclusive of non-European History
                • Non-European's seen as evolving more slowly

    C. Multiple Worlds
                  China
                  Indian Ocean
                  Mediterranean

    D. "New World"
                  North and South America
                  c. 11,000 BCE Migration (Bering Strait)

III. The Pristine Myth

         A. Christopher Columbus
                  • Seeds of Change

                  •5 Myths about Columbus [Kris Lane]:

         B. Indian Numbers
                  • Pre-1492 population = 60-80 million [map]
                  • Evidence
                          - Incan and Amazonian Roads and Causeways
                               1) 500 km of trail 
                               2) Incan Highways 40,000 km [map]
                          - Mounds
                               1) Cahokia  Mound [map]

IV.Two Empires
         A. Aztec Empire [map]
                  Mayas (c. 600-900 CE)
                  Aztecs [Mexica] (c. 1100 CE)
                       - Lake Texcoco
                       - Chinampa
                       - Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) [video]

                  1428 - Triple Alliance
                       - Aztec Empire:  489 territories (25 million people)

         B. Inca Empire [map]
                  Peru, Ecuador, Chile
                  2,500 miles long (10,000 miles of roads)

          C. Arrival of the Spaniards
                  Hernan Cortez (1519)/ Francisco Pizarro (1531)
                  Tenochtitlan c. 1500
                       - 250,000 pop.
                       - Cortez
                       - Moctezuma II

                            + God, Gold & Glory?: unique motivations?
                            + guns: 16 arquebus
                            + technology: steel swords and armor
                            + horses: covered greater distances faster
                            + allies:  Aztecs widely hated
                            + disease: small pox (photos)
                  Pizarro
                            + Cajamarca (November 16, 1532)


V. Without a Trace?  
                  Old World disease (small pox) [deathrate]
                          -Hispaniola (99%)
                          - Peru (92%)
                          - North America (74%)


VI. Conclusion 
                  West and the Rest?